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PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

DEPOSITORY rriM 

JUL m iSbS 



historic structure report 

interim historical data component 

and 
architectural data section 

June 1985 



CLEMSON 
UBRARY 




DELAWARE WATER GAP 

MARIE ZIMMERMANN HOUSE 

NATIONAL RECREATION AREA / PENNSYLVANIA 




HISTORIC STRUCTURE REPORT 
Interim Historical Data Component 



MARIE ZIMMERMANN HOUSE 
DELAWARE WATER GAP NATIONAL RECREATION AREA 

Pennsylvania 



By 

John Albright 



U.S. Department of the Interior / National Park Service 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/historicstructurOOalbr 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Chronology . . . . . . . . . 

I. Introduction ........ 

A. Administration ....... 

B. Need for Additional Research .... 

C. Marie Zimmermann ...... 

D. Acknowledgements ...... 

II. The Marie Zimmermann House ..... 

III. The Site 

IV. Marie Zimmermann ....... 

V. Additional Research ...... 

A. Historic Resource Study ..... 

B. Addendum to Historic Structure Report . 

C. Study of the Life and Works of Marie Zimmermann 

VI. Bibliography ........ 

Illustrations ......... 

Appendices ......... 



Page 
Number 

iv 

1 
1 
2 
2 
2 

3 

6 

7 

10 
10 
10 
10 

10 

14 

55 



III 



CHRONOLOGY 



June 17, 1879 Miss Marie Zimmermann, last private owner of the 

Zimmermann House born in Brooklyn, New York. 

March 18, 1882 John C. Zimmermann, a Brooklyn manufacturer, 

bought land in Delaware Township, Pike County, 
Pennsylvania 

1912 The structure now known as the Zimmermann House 

constructed. 

February 9, 1933 Marie Zimmermann, wife of the builder of the house, 

and mother of last private owner, died. 

Circa 1933 Zimmermann House is electrified. 

May 5, 1935 John C. Zimmermann, builder of the Zimmermann 

House, died. Marguerite and Miss Marie Zimmermann 
inherit the Zimmermann House. 

1938 Marguerite Zimmermann died, the last of the John C. 

Zimmermann family children except Marie. Marie 
became sole owner of the Zimmermann House. 

Circa 1946 Miss Marie Zimmermann left her New York dwelling 

and studio to live in her home in Delaware Township. 
Marie began spending part of the year in Florida, 
but maintained the Zimmermann House as her primary 
residence. 

June 17, 1972 Miss Marie Zimmermann, last private owner of the 

Zimmermann House, died. 

June 19, 1974 Federal government purchased the Zimmermann House. 



IV 



I. INTRODUCTION 

A. Administration 

In May 1981, a team composed of representatives from Delaware 
Water Gap National Recreation Area, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Office, and 
the Denver Service Center, examined six historic structures at Delaware 
Water Gap National Recreation Area. With the scope of work on each 
structure determined and funds for design transferred to the Denver 
Service Center, work began on the first of the six structures in June 
1981. The project became Delaware Water Gap Package 269, Emergency 
Stabilization, Historic Structures. 

By mid-1982 design for stabilization of four of the sites or 
structures had been completed: Neldon-Roberts House (Pkg. 269A); 
Foster-Armstrong House (269B); Pierce House (269C); Zion Lutheran 
Church (269F); and work was underway on the Zimmermann House 
(269E). Work had begun on the Shoemaker House (269D) but had been 
stopped in order to concentrate efforts on the Zimmermann House. At 
about that time, the superintendent requested that the emergency 
stabilization design effort underway for the Zimmermann House be changed 
to adaptive use. The intended use was to be housing for seasonal 
rangers, and a potential visitor contact station. 

With the decision to alter the approach to the Zimmermann House 
from stabilization to adaptive use, it became necessary to prepare a 
historic structure report to comply with NPS-28, Cultural Resource 
Management Guidelines . Discussions at the Denver Service Center and 
later among the Service Center, park, and regional office resulted in the 
decision to prepare a problem-specific historic structure report, 
architectural component. This was begun late in 1982. 

The draft architectural component went on review on March 24, 1983. 
During the review process the Chief Historian, Edwin C. Bearss, 
contacted the Denver Service Center and Mid-Atlantic Regional Office to 
discuss the need for an historical data component. Following discussions 
on this matter, it was agreed that the Service Center would prepare a 
brief historical data component. There were no funds available for this 



report, and any expenses would have to be met with funds established 
for existing work. Thus the historical data would be necessarily brief. 
This condition dictated that the report be prepared at the "limited" level 
of investigation as defined in Chapter 2, page 15 of NPS-28. The report 
that follows is therefore, on the "limited" level, is an interim historical 
data component, historic structure report, albeit a brief one. 

B. Need for Additional Research 

This brief report has revealed that detailed study is required 
of the Marie Zimmermann home and farm in order to amend the National 
Register form, and to provide NPS management and interpretive 
specialists with adequate data. Specific recommendations are discussed in 
Section V of this report. 

C. Marie Zimmermann 

Even the cursory research conducted for this report has 
revealed a very real possibility that the last private owner of the Marie 
Zimmermann house--Miss Marie Zimmermann--was an important figure in 
American decorative arts field during the first half of the 20th century. 
She created a prodigious amount of works of art, and received national 
recognition during her lifetime. No attempt is made in this report to 
provide a detailed examination of her life and work. This remains to be 
done and is discussed under Section V. 

D. Acknowledgements 

The superintendent and staff at Delaware Water Gap National 
Recreation Area provided valuable support and assistance to the 
preparation of this report. Ray Fauber, Warren Bielenberg, and Tom 
Solon were particularly helpful. Eleanor Fauber made suggestions for 
interviews which resulted in much data being recovered which otherwise 
would have been lost. 

John C. Zimmermann III, and his daughter, Gay, deserve special 
thanks. Most of the archival and photographic data in this report was 
provided by them. Their enthusiastic support is very much appreciated. 
Ida Egli and Charles Doty, of Punta Gorda, Florida provided a great deal 



of information and many kindnesses during a two-day visit by the author 
and John Zimmermann. Their contributions to the report are significant 
and very much appreciated. 

Evelyn Steinman typed both the draft and final manuscript for this 
report and compiled and produced the printed report. Her efficiency and 
patience merit special acknowledgement. 

II. THE MARIE ZIMMERMANN HOUSE 

By the time of the Civil War, the recreation qualities of the area 
along the Delaware River near Milford, Pennsylvania, had become well 
known. The river with its numerous tributaries, the rich forests and 
meadowlands of the Delaware Valley, the bountiful game and fish combined 
to make the area an attractive one for vacationers from the metropolitan 
centers to the east. Visitors began to come to the Delaware Valley in 
increasing numbers, and 



from the railroad stations at Port Jervis and Stroudsburg, stage 
coaches and carriages brought summer visitors to the Peters 
House, and the posh High Falls and Conashaugh Hotels. Farm 
houses were enlarged and new boarding houses built to 
accommodate the erudite folks from the city. Every 
establishment featured sparkling table water, fresh vegetables 
from their private gardens, and dairy products from the local 
pasture lands. 

John C. Zimmermann, a manufacturer from Brooklyn, became part of 

this new interest in the Delaware Valley and Pike County in 1882, when 

he purchased the first of several parcels of land he would eventually own 

2 
from long-time Pike County family, the Van Ettens. 



1. William, Henn, The Story of the River Road: Life Along the Delaware 
River From Bushkill to Milford , Pike County , Pennsylvania , no publisher, 
WTST pp. 8-9. 

2. Pike County Deed Book 39, p. 260, March 18, 1882, records the 
transfer of 100 acres to John Zimmermann from Daniel Ennis Van Etten. 
Later purchases of 12, 68, and 22.5 acres are recorded in Book 42, 
p. 419. 



Little is known of the dwellings on the land purchased from the Van 
Ettens, except that a structure called the Brownie Holiday House, no 
longer standing, sat on the property and probably served the family. 
The attachment of the John Zimmermann family to the area, however, had 
been established, and the family frequently spent much of their summers 
in the area. 

Whatever their residential holdings, it appears that by 1912, the 

Zimmermanns had constructed a new dwelling, now known as the Marie 

3 
Zimmermann House. The stone structure, designed by the Zimmermann s 

daughter Marie, and constructed by local labor with stone quarried in the 

area. The slate came from the quarries at Bangor, south of 

4 
Stroudsburg. The structure was under construction during the summer 

of 1912, as John C. Zimmermann came to town frequently during the 

summer, usually spending just a day or two, staying at the Fauchere 



3. Telephone interview, Charles Doty, Punta Gorda, Florida, by John 
Albright, December 14, 1983, and personal interview, Ida Egli and 
Chaples Doty by John C. Zimmermann, III and John Albright, at Punta 
Ronda, Florida, December 20, 1984. Mr. Doty, an employee of the family 
from 1929 to 1972, stated that the structure was constructed in 1912 and 
designed by Marie Zimmermann. Local tradition had long given "about 
1910" as the date of the building, and that date, as "circa 1910" is 
recorded in the Nomination Form for the National Register of Historic 
Places. While the date of 1912 is not yet buttressed by firm legal 
documentation, the closeness to the traditional date provided by a 
long-time employee can serve as corroboration of the construction date. 
Further, the State of Pennsylvania took over the river road in 1912 and 
restructured the road bed. Perhaps the prospect of all-season, 
state-maintained roads helped John Zimmermann decide to build the large 
stone dwelling. See Henn, River Road, pp. 1-12. 

4. Doty interview, December 14, 1983. Questions have arisen about the 
slate roof. It is not of the color typically found at Bangor, but more like 
slate from Maine. It is possible that the slate was, indeed, purchased at 
Bangor, but from stock on hand transported from Maine. It was not 
uncommon for the Bangor quarry to have Maine slate on hand, and to 
send Pennsylvania slate to Maine. This merits further research. 



Hotel in Milford, or at other hotels. This is quite consistent with a man 

5 
checking on the progress of construction of a house. 

The house, once constructed, underwent no major changes for the 
rest of its period of ownership by the Zimmermann family. Maintenance 
was performed, and each winter an air lock was put up at the west 
entrance to the house, complementing a heavy canvas curtain that hung 
across the front door, which faced east. Both features show in a 
collection of color slides (circa 1950: see Illustrations 5-20) owned by the 
Zimmermann family. The guttering for the roof was replaced around 
1940.^ 

In the early 1930s electrical service came to Delaware Township, and 
only at that time was it introduced to the Marie Zimmermann House. 
Electricity was installed into the structure at that time. Hot water 
systems and a boiler system were also installed about then. Prior to the 
electrification of the house, oil lamps were used to illuminate the interior 
and fireplace provided all the warmth available. 

Ownership of the house remained in the Zimmermann family from the 
dates of its construction until the structure was sold to the federal 
government in 1974. John C. Zimmermann and his wife Marie, who 
constructed the house, lived there intermittently until the late 1920s. By 
that time Mrs. Zimmermann lived at the house most of the time, with Mr. 
Zimmermann joining them freqently from Brooklyn, where he maintained 
his business. Marie Zimmermann died in 1933 and her husband in 1935. 
At that time, the younger Marie Zimmermann and her sister. Marguerite 



5. The Milford Dispatch carried notices of John C. Zimmermann visits of 
one day on May 16, April 25, and October 17. Longer stays with family, 
were for six weeks--late August to late September-and in early December, 
for a weekend at the Hotel Schanno. See Milford Dispatch , April 25, 
May 26 and 30, June 6, July 25, August 8 and 23, September 5 and 26, 
October 17, and December 5 (see Appendix 7). 

6. Doty interview, December 14, 1983. 

7. Ibid. 



inherited the house, while Marie's brothers, Charles and John, inherited 
the business. By 1938, however, Marguerite and the two brothers had 
died. At that time, Marie Zimmermann became the sole owner of the 
structure. It is this Marie Zimmermann, an artist who maintained a home 
and studio in New York, who was the last owner of the structure prior to 
its being purchased by the government. 

During her ownership, the farm remained active, gardens were 
planted, and landscaping altered from time to time, but no major 
structural changes were made to the house; no portions added, no 
architectural changes made. The slate roof on the house now is the one 

o 

which was there in 1972. The house which exists now is the house that 
Marie Zimmermann and her parents lived in, essentially unaltered. 

III. THE SITE 

The site has changed little since the 1930s. A series of photographs 
(shown as Illustrations 1-4) were taken prior to 1933, since one of the 
photographs shows the elder Mrs. Zimmermann, who died in 1933. The 
allee leading to the northwest corner of the house is shown in those 
photographs, as are the spruce trees on the east and southeast of the 
house--just at the brow of the hill. The trees and allee remain today. 
Various changes in landscaping immediately adjacent to the house were 
made during Marie Zimmermann's period of ownership--1936 to 1972. 
These are shown in the color slides taken circa 1949 (shown as 
Illustrations 5-20). 

Two surveys of the property, 1936 and 1940, show the road system 
essentially as it exists today. The 1940 survey, being more detailed, is 
included as Appendix 1. It shows the farm and road system clearly. 

The site may contain two areas of importance if persistent local 
tradition is right. Both are associated with Gifford Pinchot, first Chief 
of the U.S. Forest Service, Theodore Roosevelt's political ally, one of the 



8. Ibid 



nation's early major conservationists, and twice governor of Pennsylvania. 
There exists today, in the northeast corner of the Zimmermann lands, a 
grove of pin-oak trees, aligned in a north-south and east-west grid 
pattern. These trees are reputedly the first artificial plantation of a 
forest in the United States, and local tradition has it, were planted under 
the direction of Gifford Pinchot. It is likely that the Yale Forestry 

School students, who were often in the area undergoing training during 

9 
the summers, did plant the grove. 

In addition to the grove of pin-oaks, it is believed in the Milford 
area that the allee leading to the house may have been designed and 
planted under Pinchot's direction. The allee is much like the one at 
Greytowers, the Pinchot home in Milford; the elder Zimmermanns and the 
Gifford Pinchots were acquainted with each other. Both of these matters 
merit further research. 

IV. MARIE ZIMMERMANN 

Even the limited amount of research conducted to date on the work 
of Marie Zimmermann indicates that her career--at the national 
level--spanned at least the dates 1902 when she exhibited at the Art 

Institute of Chicago, to 1940, when her works were displayed at the New 

10 
York World's Fair. By 1923, Marie had exhibited at least twice at the 

Art Institute of Chicago--one of the nation's major art museums--at least 

once at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, in Detroit, and in 

numerous private galleries. She had been the subject of many newspaper 

articles and an article in a national magazine. House and Garden (this 

article appears in Appendix 4). By 1940, Marie Zimmermann's ironwork, 

jewelry, and decorative art objects had appeared in exhibits and at 



9. Milford Dispatch , July 25, 1912, notes the presence of Yale forestry 
students in Milford, for example. Charles Doty, in the December 20, 
1984 interview indicated that he had planted trees in the area. Further 
research is merited. 

10. See Appendix 7, "Metal Works by Marie Zimmermann" for a listing of 
exhibits known to date. This exhibit catalog also has a brief biography 
of Marie Zimmermann, which is not duplicated here. 



museums in South Carolina, California, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and New 
Jersey. She had designed metal doors for the mausoleums for the 
Montgomery Ward and the Levi Strauss families in Chicago. She had 
published an article in Arts and Decoration , and had become a major 
figure in the field of decorative arts in the United States. 

Throughout most of her career she maintained a studio at 15 
Gramercy Park in New York, at the National Arts Club. There she 
retained up to six craftsmen to assist her in producing her work. Many 
of her shows and exhibits took place in New York and were reviewed by 
the New York press. By 1916, she had become prominent enough to 
merit a feature article in the New York Evening Sun bearing the headline, 
"This Being a Feminist Age, the Village Smithy is a Studio, and the Smith 
a Comely Young Woman," (January 1916). By 1922, when she was the 
subject of an article in House and Garden , her work had begun to receive 
national attention, as noted in a passage reading: 

Her combination of wood and wrought iron and enamel and 
semi-precious jewels is something wholly individual yet marking 
a tendency in the finest of American industrial art. There are 
just a few genuine loving workers like Miss Zimmerman[n] , who 
are breaking paths on stony roads, but who are making very 
clear our stupendous possibilities for a beautiful, rich industrial 
art in America. 

By 1926, Marie's reputation had continued to grow to the point 
where she had commissioned to create bronze doors for Mrs. Montgomery 
Ward. She had, by that time received considerable publicity. One 
article in the Brooklyn Eagle reported that 

if you take a trip around some of the beautiful estates of 
America you would see Miss Zimmermann's art in still other 
forms. Terraces of pink and white marble. Quaint, strange 
old gates. Bronze fountains, wood carvings and panelings 
decorating rich interiors. Stained gl^ss windows. The result 
is that today Miss Zimmermann is perhaps the most versatile 
artist in the country. She is a sculptress, a painter, a 
goldsmith and a silversmithy a cabinetmaker, a wood carver, a 
jeweler-even a blacksmith. 



11. |bid., p. 16. 

12. Brooklyn Eagle , June 6, 1926. 



In 1929, a Detroit newspaper described Marie Zimmermann as "a 

13 
distinguished American designer." By 1935, one headline characterized 

14 
Zimmermann as a "Female Cellini." 



Somewhat less dramatic, but no less enthusiastic, is the description 
in a letter from the editor of Arts and Decoration magazine to the curator 
of a gallery in South Carolina preparing a Marie Zimmermann exhibit. 
Marie Zimmermann, the letter noted, 

is not only the foremost worker in metals from iron to gold but 
is the greatest artisan in tti|e field of beautiful home accessories 
and exquisite objects d'art. 

By 1939, Marie Zimmermann's work had continued to merit attention 
and had earned her the title of "the finest craftsman in this country," in 
a newspaper article describing her work at the Faulkner Gallery in Santa 
Barbara, California. A year later, Marie Zimmermann's work appeared at 
the New York World's Fair and her article on iron work had appeared in 
Arts and Decoration (see Appendix 3). 

Today at least one piece of her work remains in a major gallery--the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art--where a vase, decorated with 56 rubies, is 
on display in the American Wing of the Museum. Other examples of her 
work can be seen at the mausoleum for the Levi Strauss and Montgomery 
Ward families in Chicago, and in private collections in the United States 
and abroad. 

The appendices dealing with Marie Zimmermann's work illustrate the 
continued popularity of her work from the early to the mid-20th century. 
Much more, however, needs to be learned about this unique and 
accomplished American artist. 



13. Detroit Sunday News , October 20, 1929. 

14. Charleston [South Carolina] News and Courier , March 12, 1935. 

15. Letter, Mary Fanton Roberts, ed . , Arts and Decoration , to R. 
Whitelaw, Gibbes Gallery, Charleston, South Carolina, February 27, 1935, 
see Appendix 2. 



V. ADDITIONAL RESEARCH (in priority order) 

A. Historic Resource Study^ Project Type 32 

The study should cover the Zimmermann farm as well as the 
house. The data provided by this study can be used to revise the 
National Register forms and provide interpretive material for the park 
staff. In addition, this study should meet the requirements for the 
historical data for the physical history and analysis section of the historic 
structure report. 

B. Addendum to Historic Structure Report (Architectural Data ) 
Project Type 35 

The architectural data in this report is problem specific, 
oriented on adaptive use both as a residence and as a visitor contact 
station. A detailed architectural analysis of the structure covering any 
structural elements or systems not yet thoroughly examined is in order. 
This would provide the basic information necessary for cyclic maintenance 
and any future uses of the structure. 

C. Study of the Life and Works of Marie Zimmermann, No Project 
Type 

A thorough examination of the life and works of Marie 

Zimmermann would determine whether or not the National Park Service is 

the custodian of the home of a major figure in the field of the decorative 

arts. Special funding might have to be sought for this study since it is 
outside the normal boundaries of NPS historical studies. 

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 
Primary Source Material 

The collection of letters, notes, surveys, exhibition catalogs, 
letters, photographs, magazine, and newspaper articles with the 
Zimmermann family is the basic source of data for this report and will be 
for any additional research. This extensive collection will merit the 
careful attention of any researcher to study the life and works of Marie 
Zimmermann. 



10 



Interviews 

Bensley, Mrs. Elsie, by John Albright, December 6, 1983* 

Doty, Charles, by John Albright, December 14, 1983 (by telephone)* 

Doty, Charles, by John Albright and John C. Zimmermann, III at 
Punta Gorda, Florida, December 20, 1984. 

Egli, Ida, by John Albright and John C. Zimmermann, III at Punta 
Gorda, Florida, December 20, 1984. 

Knox, Allen R., and Edward Vandermillen, by John Albright, 
December 6, 1983* 

MacCallum, Charles, by John Albright, December 6, 1983 (by 
telephone)* 

Snyder, John Richard, by John Albright, December 6, 14, 1983 (by 
telephone)* 

Zimmermann, John C. Ill, by John Albright, December 7, 1983* 

Published Materials 

(no author) Comparative Bibliographical Record of Northeastern 
Pennsylvania , Including Susquehanna , Wayne , Pike , and Monroe 
Counties . Chicago: J.H. Beers and Company, 1900. 

Edgerton, Giles. "An American Worker in the Crafts." House and 
Garden, February, 1922, pp. 28, 29, and 78. 

Fausold, Martin L. Gifford Pinchot : Bull Moose Progressive . 
Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1961. 



* Copies on file at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area 

11 



Fluhr, George J. ed. Pike County Historic Site and Scenic Area 
Survey , Volume VIII, Delaware Township. 

Henn, William. The Story of the River Road : Life Along the 
Delaware River from Bushkill to MUford, Pike County , Pennsylvania , 
(no publishers), 1975. 

Pinkett, Harold T. Gifford Pinchot : Private and Public Forester . 
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970. 

Zimmermann, Marie. "Cinderella of the Metal World," Arts and 
Decoration , May 1940, pp. 13, 14, 15. 

Newspaper Articles : United States (chronologically arranged) 

Milford [Pennsylvania] Dispatch , April 25; May 5, 12, 16, 30; 
June 6; August 8, 22; September 5, 26; October 17; December 5. 

New York Evening Sun , January 12, 1916. 

New York Evening Post, May 15, 22, 1926. 

New York Times , May 16, 1926. 

Brooklyn Eagle , June 6, 1926. 

Detroit News, October 20, 1929. 

Charleston [South Carolina] News and Courier , March 12, 19, 22, 
1935. 

Santa Barbara News Press , March 5, 19, 24, 31, 1939. 

Newspaper Articles : Switzerland 



12 



Sie und Er [She and He], Zoflinger, November 18, 1939. 

Legal Records 

Pike County Pennsylvania, Office of Recorder and Prothonotary, 
Milford, Pennsylvania. 

Deed, June 18, 1974, Marie and John Zimmermann Fund, Inc., John 
C. Zimmermann III, to the United States of America, Book 443, 
p. 332. 

Deed, August 10, 1936, Marie Zimmermann, and the United States 
Trust Company, Executors of the Will of John Zimmermann, 
deceased, to Marie Zimmermann and Marguerite Zimmermann, dated 
July 29, 1936, Book 90, p. 279. 

Survey, Lands of Marie Zimmermann and Marguerite Zimmermann, 
May 1936, Plat Book 1, p. 223. 



13 



ILLUSTRATIONS 1 through 4 

The House in 1913 

(from Zimmermann Family Papers) 



The following four photographs appear to date from 1913, the first 
summer that the house was occupied. The evidence for assigning the 
date of 1913 is in the photographs themselves. Since one of the 
photographs in the series (Photograph 1) shows the elder Marie 
Zimmermann, who died in 1933, the series obviously predates 1933. 
Careful examination of the furniture and style of arrangement of the 
furnishings shown in the photograph reveals a 1910 to 1915 look. 
Photograph 2 shows apparently unfinished fixed light French doors in the 
southwest corner. This suggests that the house was but recently 
constructed with minor construction details not quite complete. With one 
exception in Photograph 3, there are no pictures hanging on the walls. 
This, too, suggests that the house was but recently furnished when the 
pictures were taken, and that pictures had not yet been hung. 
Photograph 2 shows pictures, propped against the wall, a vase, and a 
candlestick on the mantle, but nothing hung on the wall. 

It appears that the newly completed house was photographed when 
the Zimmermanns moved in. Since they stayed six weeks at the Hotel 
Fauchere in August and September of 1912, it is logical to assume that 
they moved in to their new house in the late spring or early summer of 
1913. Until any additional evidence becomes available, the date of spring 
or summer, 1913, can suffice. 



14 




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18 



ILLUSTRATIONS 5 through 11 
(From Zimmermann Family Papers) 



Illustrations 5 through 11 show examples of Marie Zimmermann's 
work. Of the seven items, only the bronze doors can be dated (to 1926). 



19 



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ILLUSTRATIONS 12 through 20 
(from Zimmermann Family Papers) 



These are scenes of the interior and exterior of the Zimmermann 
House dating from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. All scenes have been 
dated as circa 1950. 



35 




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APPENDICES 



55 



Appendix 1 - Survey of Marie Zimmermann property, Delaware Township, 
Pike County, Pennsylvania, September 23, 1940. 




Appendix 2 - Clippings, exhibition catalogs, and letters about Marie 
Zimmerman, 1924 to 1939, arranged chronologically; all material from 
the Zimmermann family papers. 

Undated: "Catalogue of Jewelry and Metal Work by Marie 
Zimmermann. " 

December 23, 1924 to January 25, 1925: Catalogue of the 
Twenty-Third Annual Exhibition of Modern Decorative Art at the Art 
Institute of Chicago . 

May 15, 1926: Reviews, New York Evening Post and May 16, 1926: 
Review, New York Times . 

May 22, 1926: Photograph New York Evening Post . 

June 6, 1926: Brooklyn Eagle . 

October 20, 1929: The Detroit News. 

February 27, 1935: Letter, editor Decorative Arts magazine, to 
Curator, Gibbes Art Gallery, Charleston, South Carolina. 

March 12, 19, and 22, 1935: Charleston, S. C. News and Courier. 

March 5, 19, 24, and 31, 1939: Santa Barbara News Press. 



57 



CATALOGUE 

Of 

JEWELRY AND METAL WORK 

by 

MARIE ZIMMERMANN 



58 



RINGS 



Brazilian Emerald and Amethyst ring 

Old Egyptian cartouche ring 

Amethyst intaglio ring, leaf design with emeralds 

Old sardonyx cameo 

Dark green tourmaline with tiny precious stones 

Rose diamond Hindu ring with precious stones 

One large garnet ring (one with precious stones) 

Star Sapphire paved with rubies, lapis and emeralds 

Yellow and blue sapphire paved in emeralds 

Black opal with pink and green tourmalines 

Heavy seal ring 

Diamond paved in small diamonds, lapis and jade 

Dark green tourmaline, lapis and Celtic enamel 

Pink sapphire rose ring 

Emerald set in sapphires, tiny rubies 

Baroque pearl set in emeralds, tiny rubies 

Cluster of flawed emeralds, tiny rubies and enamel back 

Carved jade and gold 

Babylonian ring with yellow zircon 

Yellow sapphire with enamel 

Yellow beryl with enamel 

Large star sapphire 

Emerald set in rubies 

Green jade set in sapphires 

Jade ring with enamel shank 

Old emerald set in square of enamel and sapphires 

Small ruby ring with precious stones 

Jade ring with precious stones 

Leaf wedding ring 

Large green tourmaline set with tourmalines and enamel 

Large amethyst intaglio with emeralds 

Emerald with ruby setting 

Diamond gypsy ring 

Moonstone seal ring 

One aquamarine ring in silver 

Small amethyst intaglio with enamel shank 

Yellow sapphire in a jeweled renaissance setting 



EARRINGS 



Plain gold hoops--antique 

Long plain gold Etruscan 

Plain gold Egyptian 

One pair ancient Russian earrings--1 pr. in gold 

Diamond and aquamarine 

Sapphires, rubies and jade 

Gem jade and jeweled flowers 



59 



Pair Egyptian earrings--amethyst and peridot fans 

Jade, enamel and blister pearls 

Pair of spinel ruby earrings 

Madeira topaz earrings 

Moonstone and enamel tourmaline and amethyst (modern) 

Enamel and jeweled flowers 

Tourmaline leaves with opal flowers 

Tourmaline leaves with emerald tops 

Fine antique cameos set in pearls 

Aquamarine earrings--French 



NECKLACES 



Carved gold pendent-Circe - with diamond - with chain 
Short fancy sapphire chain 

Egyptian collar necklace with garnets, tourquoise and enamel 
Jasper leaf necklace with moonlight jade 
Azurite and coral necklace 

Old carved abmer, carnelian, jade and lapis necklace 
Large pearl blister, tourmaline and garnet with enamel (Russian) 
Aquamarine necklace--French 
Amethyst and green jade (globs) 

Antique carved emerald and seed pearls with tourmaline melon beads- 
Extra clasp 
Antique carved emerald-precious stones and seed pearls 
Antique carved emerald with rose diamonds 
Green jade leaves, rubies and garnets 



BRACELETS 



Ivory enamel and garnet bracelet 

Carnelian vase with jeweled flowers - bracelet 

Pair white sapphire bracelets 

Fancy sapphire bracelet with carved jade clasp 

Square amethysts and fancy sapphire bracelet 

Egyptian bracelet, almondine garnets, tourquoise, lapis coral and sard 

Black and white cameo bracelet, half pearls and black onyx emerald seed 

pearl bracelet 
Pair topaz and amethyst bracelets 
Russian bracelet of fancy sapphires 

Enamel bracelet with yellow beryl, lapis, malachite and fancy sapphire 
Green tourmaline and gold bracelet 

Pair of Chinese bracelets, pearls, tourmalines, lapis lazuli and corral 
White topaz bracelet--amethyst, malachite and lapis lazuli 
Pair of fine jade and enamel dragon bracelets 
Bracelet of emerald, lapis and malachite and cinabar 



60 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Gold Spur with black enamel and rubies 

Pair of gold, ebony and ivory carvers 

Crystal and gold box with enamel and fine black and white cameo--Aurora 

Fine ivory box-tourquoise lid with jade, etc., Persian miniatures inside 

Fine gold box - miniature L'Aiglon 

Jeweled Madonna in ivory case 

Jeweled Dagger 

Carnelian, ivory, ebony and jeweled prayer book cover 

Sterling silver St. Francis 

One coral and gold pen holder 

One jade and gold pen holder 

One silver box with carnelian cameo 

One gold, enamel, emerald, amethyst and ruby Cross 

One carved mahogany box with sterling and amethyst mounts 



BROOCHES 



Modern moonstone, amethyst and tourmaline brooch with enamel 

Fine antique cameo set in pearls 

Carved jade and lapix 

English hunting scene set in crystal 

Jasper and azurite 

Jade, rubies and sapphires 

Plain Etruscan gold 

Black opal, sapphire, rubies and azurite 

Rubies and emeralds 

Amethyst set with sapphires and half pearls 

Amethyst set with lapix lazuli and pearls 

Large amethyst set in malachite, sapphires and rubies 

emerald matrix and pearl 

Black opal - azurite and precious stones 

large carved jade clip 

Green tourmaline - pearls, enamel and precious stones 

Amethyst Bow Knot 



BRONZE--GOLD PLATED 



Two Greek goblets 

One large centerpiece Greek vase 

Two large table candalabra 

One large oval fluted bowl 

Four Gazelle candle sticks 

three-piece Egyptian-Arabic mantel set-center vase and stand (two side vases) 

One large Greek basin 

One lotus finger bowl (two pieces) sample 

One silver plated round bon bon dish 

61 



BRONZE--GREEN PATINA, ETC 



Lizard and Butterfly fountain 

Green bronze Chinese Shell Bowl 

Green bronze Chinese Box with jade handle 

Two large green bronze Greek vases 

Two fine bronze and crystal Candelabra 

"The Osprey and the Eagle" 



STERLING 



Table-service in silver gold plated 

One Egyptian Scarab candy dish 

One Small cigarette Box, Ivory feet, enamel and large lapis in cover 

One Rogers Cup 

Two Julip Cups (Waterford pattern) 

One Compote (Gazelle) jade top 

Two Celtic Cake Dishes 

Two Celtic Bowls with feet 

Two Plain Candlesticks 

Two Small Archaic Jars 

One Tall (Russian) chased silver Bowl on foot 

One Ram's Head Center piece 

One Round Bon Bon Dish, pink quartz handle 

One Round Bon Bon Dish, blue ivory and blue lapis handle 

Two Early French Bowls 

One Sterling Dresser Set (one Tray, one Powder Box, two Bottles) 

Five Assorted Boxes with cameos, pearls and gold inlay 

One French Box, gold and jeweled garlands--one stand 

One Gold Plated and enamel Finger Bowl (two pieces) 

One Sterling Finger Bowl 



62 



1. 1' 






CATALOGUE OF THE TWENTY- 
TliIRD ANNUAL EXHIBITION OF 

modh:[in decorative art at 

rUE ARf INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 



; FJ 






DECEMBER 23. 1024 TO JANUARY 25. 1925 



•I "-I 



^ 



$ 



'-1 Ih 




63 



CATALOGUE 
BFiNDA, \V. T., New York 



1 Masks 



'.FNTON, B., New York 



2 Fori t ait l'T';ques 

Courtesy of Mrs. Ehrich, New York 

BIDDLE, GEORGE, New York 

3 Ceramics 

Conrt'^y of Fcrargil G^Ucrics, New York 

BINGHAM, HARRIET G., New York 

4 Book Ends 
4a Tiles 

Counesy of FerargO Gilleries, New York 

BINNS, CHARLES F., Alfred. New York 

5 Ceramics 

BLAZYS, ALEXANDER, New York 

6 "Indian," Wood carving 

BURR, FRANCES, New York 

7 Set of three painted gefso panels 

BUSH-BROW'N, L^'DL^, New York 

8 Set of four silk murals, 'Tour Elements" 

Courtesy of Mrs. F.hrich, New York 



■ MARCH SE\^NTEENTH TO APRIL twii^lilJRTH^^ 



64 



WATSON. NAN, New York 
;05, Decorative painting 

Courtesy of \Vliiiney Stiidio Club, Ktw York 



WHHFLER, WAKRhN, \Voo,^stock, New York 
.106 Decorative bronie, "Adolescente" 

Couit«y of New Gallery, New York 

"107- Wooden model for faucet 

Courtesy of Mrs. Fhrich, Kew York 

IDS Salad set, wooden 

Lent by }>irs. M. Schutz, Chicago 

■■ WHITFORD, WILLIAM C, Chicago, Illinois 

309 Ceramics 
.no Tiles 

ZIMMERMAKTsJ, MARIE, New York 

111 Jewelry and silverware 

ZORACH, W1LLL\M, New York 

112 Wooden decorative figures 

Counciy of C W. Krausbaar GaUcries 



65 




Out •>( M-rU /u.iii.cii. ..•..■» >.il««l a-^l H.o.l IkJ 




jf^ I ,*; f.K^ »,'. »i --■» ••'i'/ '*-« 



fe3*S«*?£^ssii&^^ 



220 WILST 19th ST.. NEW YORK 

Tel. C1;rl,ca6560 
TH/S CUfPiNG FROM 

jNEW YORK TJMES 



.^ T»o WorJiUs in .Mtliil. 

FW de-sti-iierti corublne soinipr? 
louK and f.rfCloua «iones .so .^\ic 
--;'?<ful)y Ml" does l->1ward Oakcs 
'•TT^'rives the Icvs vuliiablc, or at least j 

tTm-lp.-oi expoD.-iive, ^Lcnes tlie niostH 
'liiiporlanl })liir«- Thi-> ulunc tliioufcihl 
■foe Irini.inf rpneiilons Ivnt by their"* 

»itpllM»9-liltW rl:;inir>nds and b-ap» 
, rhwes. The -wui Kjn.iii.sMp ih faiiit- 

!• 5S, thoiisb one would a.sk j.erhap* 

for a lioldpf and inore rontcuij.orury 
I i-jHgn in tlie Kt'M. a>"J 'o"" *» gi<^aler 
t i;.-l;ii'-;ion in llie l.n^v out.-^lde furms^ 
i Th:s fxliibiiion ai \hf- Sofifeiy o( Arts 
Tfcnd (Vaft.s H)U laM until the end of 
t.the >oek. '. 

At P. JaO-.aon HipKs's. Murip Ziin- 

inorman is Nhowmj;f'Tf5f'pvof^Ta«* 

j**>*C3U»-jfl»'«**'*'o'^'* isTamaliiiiig in; 
Ills inryiinlltlfts. One wishes it wer« 

• 1) ae fine uj. 11 ii when at II. n W^.' 
' A r-^ir of taadlcstii ka. Tor In.stdnc*.' 
'■how8 teHUly in the upper i.iirt— ' 
r t'.tuty both of inatenal and iJiiri>ose.' 
^TThft di .sign Ik Il^ht without losing &: 
1 e-nse of 1h'' weight of the niiMlium. 
! Cr>ttal ,'l^aT!^ l.u Ifnlly inlroduced. 
I f -ly wifhTne il^^l of the c.-Mi^lta. 



? Put »> hen tha riroiT\ rcHches the biis^ 

>t b«rt.uncs U-)tH"~efrin£r>' and hea^^y^ 

One js'le'itroajiitfnt, because of Jta 

▼rry B'.nlp'.lOity, Is na complete us any 

,thin«: here. 




Hii 
IE 



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ri, 







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THLSS CUPPING lilKf.\U 






fi 






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R 



220 WEST 19th ST., JvtW YORK 
TeLChel^-a&S60 



[ NEW YORK EVE. POST 

i:^ . MA/ 1 ^ ^"^"^ ■ 

r* Other Shotcs 






Maj-1« ZTmnjerraaA^ la exhibiting tiy*} 
bionM doors, r:iad« for >Irs. Montgouier/V 
%\'ard, at the tjalledes of P. Jackson Hlggs. 5 
The doora. In bronz«, hnve the lotue rnotlf j 
In flower and aqoatio leaf, \v1th bea.Ty| 
pillars crouTied by Egr) ptlaji capltaJe at^ 
either side. The h(^auly of MiM Zlnt-4 
mormAn'a -srork rev&als her both a« j 
finished cTLftiman and creatlv* artist. J 
The rather dente Vveavlng of Irares and J 
fiower* In this (;e<;lK'n fclvee the needed i 
si^lldity and flrnmeas to the doars vrltLoutJ 
producing hfta%ine6a of InipiebBlon. Th« j 
F.gyptlan Jnflutnco lnterpret.pd (personally) < 
m.akcia this monumental work have some- ] 
tblng^ of the serenity and the tranquillity j 
of oJd Egyptian art, bat there l3 also the 1 
aklJl of modern adaptation to new tlmea i 
and needs that awaken* one'a admiration I 
:Jo 4^1 jLiSJLi^iihi^J^M. ■■-'••-■- ■■ ■-- "r>iti 



^romt 




^si*pAont 



y^r^us J, resscllpclnq xJcSLwetiu 

352 THIRD AVE./ NEW YORK 



TERMS: Payable in adTance 

$40- for 1000 clipping* >12— for 250 clipping* 

$22— for 500 clipping* $6— for 100 clipping* 

Ntt timm limit 



^^. V r 



Other Shows 



:G POST 



7 

bltlpj 



66 



Mar1« Zlmrperm4.n is eihlbT^ivf tvnf 
broD2« doori, made for Mrs. Moijt^tKn**^ J 
WanJ, at the fcallorjea of P. J%QH>op |^«, ; 
The doora, In bfpnja, have the \tf4\it Vti'^Ai ■ 
in flower and a<}uatle l«a<, wUl) ^eaVT i 
iWlai^ rj-owD«d by Egyptian eapl{al« jiit^ 
either Bld«. Th« beauty ^ ili»« gim": 
menlan'ji wopk r^v^* Jier t>prt M' 
flpisled craflijin^n ftpd cfe^tlye e.rtt^ ; '' 

The rather denji^ Yv«^v|nf pt lf*r«f f^i 
flow^rp ,ln thlq deolgo ^'lifeo (b* ism4|<}^ 
Bql)(flty and flrmneM t? thft Him* H^tJ^^e^ 
pro*cJmr heavlriba* of In^prWS^Q, Xb»! 
E^-ittan Influence Ji)terpf#t«j5 (P6r^p|J!jf)* 
n^a}^ th|fl tnot^ywentaJ wor]| }^^* f^r^fi'} 
of the sereplty and tl)p irao^ylUttyl 
Id EB^ptlan art, t)g^ th^re If i^ t^<v| 
pf D)Ofief n ^apf at]op tQ nrfc Jtrpa^ 

^t»dM th^t » ^V^ g nt e 9»0 jgj^ • ^)^ 



ijjai^gt^- -'i— A^ 



J%n wi.' -a^ if^ r^i 




; MARIE ZIMMERMAN, who is now exhibiting 

; Rome of her pieces of gold, iijlver, bronze and 

jewel work at the gallery of P. Jackson Higgs, 

explaining to Francis Lorett, at her Gramsrcy 

Park studio, how she produces beautifnl patines 

I on her bronres. 




67 



Brooklyn Eagle , June 5, 1926 




Oman 



By 



Harriette Ashbrook: 

T.V THIS ije of 5ptci«:J2«tion .M';^ .V.ar'c Zimmtrmtnn 
' ilinds out II a 'jnique fieure. Tiirry ytars ac«, vhtn 

she ^ecln her siudies at ibo Ar. Students League in 
New York, she 'ooked al the works cfthe nnc ent inaaters 
ul Italy, tile Celliois and Lhe MIche'.^nEelos. ird ifecided 
tlul ihe Manied to follow in iheir 'ootsier'- 

She u-anied to make exquisjie bowls nnj chalices of 
cold and silver, fashion great doors and brniiers of pat- 
terned bronae. create tiny jeweled dr.pps for a lady'a ear, 
cir%e beauty and dignity into chair« and tablet. She 
confidtd her imbitiona to one of her maslerj. 

"Out," he protefied, "ll wilt lak; you firie«n yeara 
to master the crafii which all this ir->olvcs." 

•"His et<titrate." she now con'f:vt;5, "m as too con- 
It loi.V me iwent>. five yeais, w,ih each day of 
ihetTi filled with ten or rft-el^c hours_of work." 

■Rie result is t!)at today AV.ss Z.nmermann it per. 
hapi the mott verjalle arint i« this country. She is • 
joilptrest, a painier, a golc'smnh and a s lversmi;h, ft 
cabinet maker, a »oo<l carver, a jew e'er — even ft bl»ek- 
smiih. For when the occasion demanos she can *ield ft 
hammer ftnd pound out iron vtth « matler*s skill. 

A recent showing of *. r ^ ork in New York City wlU 
*ei«« to il.'uttrate to • certain e;<t«Bt the wide rang* of 




-" ■ Tage Eleven ■ ■ 



ozeri 




Spent Twenty' 
Five Years in- 
Acquiring 
Technical 
Training 
Needed for f 
Working Out 
Her Ideas 




her art The visitor' entered "ibrougli two huge bronio 
■fi'ors, beautifully and intricately wrought. They aft d»- • 
i-gned tventuftlly to grftce out of tilt richest hofies in 
.\jnerfca. _-;',' 

Inside, in contrast, were cues containing lewelry 
of the most delicate wotkmanjhip. Chans so tiny that 
•hejp sertied almost of fairy worXiranship. Dismsnds, 
cTStai, ade. lapU-laiull, erticraldi, rubles, fashioned mio 
r-ngs and rim ind necklaces ftlid enrrincf. 

'« another else ro«der j«r« and perfuTie boiilts of 
<<>lid -'Cj-en gold. A toilet «el lucb >s graced th« dre«»- 
I'l^ lab'e of some ancient Egyptian Clropjira made of 
cn'rer and so'd and cantd wood and .'vory wuh jade and 
c:i'"c;>n -J-.J tufnuolM mliid. A glor-oua scarlet feftiher 
'an with a handle of wrought goli and carved while 

.lit- —- - .■ 

>"' And just across the reom t leng refectory table on 

which stood two hugo candelabra of twining bronicvine* 
_ — .rd leaves dripping cT^stal grapea. Boils of beaieo c«lii- 
.'. bronre dagger inla d with gems — aTif:rer such af some- 
.ing dead dc Medici might bar* plur^ed »iih poisoned 
• nto an unsuspecting foe. 

A'd if you could take ft trip around 5ome of the 
heJut.ful country estates of Amefiea-you wou'd see Misa 
/immctinacn's art in «t;ll other toiTiis. Terraces of pink 
jnd white marble. Quaint, strange o'd pales. Bronit 
'ouniijns, vood earrings and panelings decorating rich 
■ntcioi^ Stained jlass tt'indows.;~ *1 

In fact, there 's hardly a beaojiful 'hing which ho- 
man ^ands an make that Miss ZitruDcrmaon hasn't made." 

"Aod »hat," uc asked, "doyoucall yourself? You're 
rot just an artist, or juii a sculptress, or just a silver- 
smith. You're all of them combinca." 

■'Yes,'" she replied, simply, ."I'am a crafijmftti. I 
■••ve tried to bring back the old, .ilea of the artist thtt 
nourished in the djys of such meii as Michelangelo an4 
Ccl'inl. They were masters of a doten enfis and they 
u<ed all of them In producing perhaps one objicJ." , 

Miss Zlmmermann has aisisUAg htr a staff of six. 
workers whom she has personall)( trained. Thtt Vnan who 
itoea some of the work on ihe.wroutht-lron pieces is, for 
ri.T"plr. an old blacksmith wht^with Ihc raising of the 
horse, found himself out of a Job^.Miss ZininicrmAon took" 



^"V^UPytiJi". jVr-=>f'^<2^^bU I» h\n4tni lio«t!f 
S V S- ' .' • V^". *^*5tr.''|" lo,faahi»« Iron into; 

0^\'- •'':■■' ' |r' \ •• .' ,"gltii ind e»ndlestick» 



.y-.-^^^K-^': ' a^ w«ll » into ho 
■"■;■•.•'■ ■'>'■' ]i - '■'■-f ■^l fthot* - ■' • '•■■ 

So nearly bat aJit approftinuied the work of the eld 
maaier eraftsmeh that not infre^aiePtly b«r produatj art 
takon for hoirlooms of the Rcnaiasanec. Not lo*| ego at 
an eahiblt one gentlemaB-was pointing out to ■ companloo 
a beiuiiful, inlaid ivory boa, eiplaining from the height* 
of hia iupcrior wisdoto that it waa very old, ptobobly 
had been handetf down through many generattons. 

"As »-maiter of fact," Miss Zimmemntnn adda, "I 
had iasi finished it the diy-befor«." 

Against the scourge of haod.wrovjghl Ica'slry which 
afflicted the world »ome five or six yeara past Miss 
Zimoierirann was i valiant contender. Tbos* inured to 



Janecr seems to be ftakbcdj* . . , , r 

.' '* Hor own workroom ft characiccistjc of &cr ideas of. 
beautiful- i»leriora.t'.tho JalM are paneled ^wlth'' deep,] 
rich bravo woo4|-, iha labtea'and chair; are carved and 
oa OM side of thf jroom la t boauiKul bit of old tapesiry.- 
Al her worktable Miu ZitiiMrmann ia making t wax 
madel of an EgyHan coucH.. Since the recent popularity- 
of Kiftf TtJt, things Egyptian have been vary much in 
demancL The tiny model of colored wt> is to gUe the 
client an idea of what the finished product will look like 
when It it turned eui in wood with the neb decorations of 
that colorftit, ancient foriod. 

Another wax model for a pair of bronze gates is also 
on the lablt, When they arc completed they will be ten 
feet high. Seside it is a small f-ngcr ring, just finished, 
inlaid with do^sa of tmy sems. . - , - 

"So ) ou soe," Mils Zimmermann sums up, "I'm fust 
a cra^tltT^an who, a* a fnend of mine once said, makes 
everything, from liarai lo tombstones." 



68 



Nai-I' 



\ ■ I 



IJ > , / I ' ' ' ) ■■ I ■■(■■ 

at Arts and (J rafts lea. 



t all Season of Society 
Exntojtion ana R. 



To O'^cn Whh Sf^ccial:- 
ece/ttion for Z);5- 
tinguiskea Metal Worker, 



NNl^iile ne\er Vjuarr 
imi»:;!n Is a cnalivr- 
iiii;iJi;)iiiion and (inn 



i. ci-ty of Alls and Crafts will be 
liiausiuated on Wednesday after- 
iioc^n V ith a tea and Informal re- 
ception at wliirh Miss Marie Zim- 
in-rn->n, a- dlNtinguishcd American 
di'-igiiOT, ■^ull be a guest of honor. 
A &pf iiil exlilbition of the work of 
four Anifriran cr.iftsir.en uill be 
also on vit*' at this time. 

Mi.'.s Zlu'iraennan is an oiitsland- 
ing fig'.iro In the an v*orld of Amer- 
ica. While 5he Is kricv.n especially, 
for her brilhant and unutual wmk 
t as a Ji. wclry designer and vcrl;er 
in precioiLS metals and f^ne gcm.s, 
her activities are by no me.'ins con- 
fiiitd to this field. Probnbly no more 
conclusive evidence of her viUility 
fis a cieatlve artLst may be ofTfiecl 
than 'he wide lanfee of her activi- 
ties and the veiialUlty of lier t-ech- 
jiuque and method. For while she 
')fler.s on the one hand a bracelet 
I -ir v\rist v.-vtch set with f;ne neiiis In 
'the suiiiptuou.s thouch dcluatcman- 
j nc/ of 11. e early Flon mines, .--he j 
turns wuh equal lis ui.ince to tlie | 
use of copper, brass and even hand | 
uiiMicht iron. 

ro. Miss Ziin 
arii.sL of t'real 
\ng. ccmbininij 
Miih .in eje for the sumptuous, the 
rlrh hiu-s of gold and silver uith 
i\or\'. jade, amber, coral or other 
jinujual embellishments. 
» Prsbsbly no one ."lave Mis.s Zim- 
merman, for In.stnnce. x^ould con- 
ceive of a gortieous cUnner service 
m gold. Us claim to distinction rest- 
ing solely on the beauty of line and 
texture of ttie metal rather than on 
carving or apjilli'd ornament of any 
kind. This set, as well as a huge 
colltfction of her unusual jewelry, 
will be shown at the opening ex-. 
hibiiion on Wednesday afternoon. 

Although Ainf-ncan born and of 
Swiss extraction. Miss Zimmer- 
man's uork shows a suong eastern 
Influence, lapsing at times into the 
meciievftl. She is herself a person 
of great personal ch^rm and vir.or, 
who has. as her dr.mmant Interest 
outside of her work a love ol the 
outdoors, where hunting and fislung 
are lier favorite forms of r?la-'a- 
tion f.nd V here her manual dcx'ej- 
Uy, doubtless, makes her an ex.nert 
shoL I , 

Her visit to Detroit is an adven- 
ture decidedly outside the routine 
of her usual activities, which are so 
largely devoted to executing orders 
that she seldom arran:;ed compre- 
hen.'.lve exhibitions of her work. For 
this reason the Society of Arts and 
Crafts considers itself fortunate in 
living her as a guest at the open- 
ing tea, and In being able to show 
a gorgeous collection <-" her unusual 
jev^elry. 

Coincident with the showing ot 
work by Miss Zimmerman, therfe' 
will be special exhibitions ot original' 
textiles by Miss Ruth Reeves, hantf 
wrought furniture by Carold French 
and DanUh stone-ware by Bing and 
Oronghal . ',. ' ' 



.s.'3n-r V. • ', I. ':, ,-s t-i i;--^ •_ .: j jVjny 

.-':. :.:oi):,i ;■ r- ; n. :■]. v., and n-o 

a'so has w. 7.:-d ra r" u iieriij. 51:9 
fnds hei-.lf l-.pp.f t li...e..r in 
the dcs\iu,r,p, of V7a!l-ha:;r in-,s a-id 
te,\li]cs. and br-l;e\3i ih^t the ele- 
gants of- the eKi.;'.--nrh cent-.n-y 
should . have no 'monoply of ih« 
rhainiing t;ile ne j.ioy ii--d thqn. 
Thus sj^e fmcis much in the life. oI 
the present qay to .serve -is niotlft 
for sijr.llar f;ib;ics. To this *i^d ;,!« 
de.signs onjinal texti'e.s t3 crdsf, 
IncorporaMnt th? patterns d" cln- 
t:ir,porary life into her pharmlna 
pamred or printed fabrics. -■•. *■ ." 

Tlie Danish .■^ton'evare to be 
shov.-n In ,lh:s exhibition. Jnclu.iei 
aniinnl fprms of great .strength Hnd 
vigor th:u->h c/.n-.pajative'y small In 
siie<as veil a.s small covered' Jars, 
and .some finely rriodr>ll?d bowls with 
patterns in ti-^e relisf. The animal 
figures are r.-pecially convmclns 
howcxer.- ;h? ponderous b;ar. \va!k- 
Ins w th all ihe weight and de- 
libera: on which he Is aecj-tomed 
t"> cm-'ov and the massive elephant 
^^ho iee.TB to have beexi created for 
purpc.'fs of drf^ration. as well *s 
I';, both pcsiess the qualities of 
th.e finest sculpiure. 

Tiir fumituie by Carol Fiene-h, 
hand-hev, n and hand- pegged, pr^ 
tints a variety of original i:^rina 
and an interesting use of contrast- 
ing uoods. . , > ' 

ItalLan glass and porcelain, a pnlr 
of rare'" old - Ttallan ■'inlrEora-.^ii^ 
modern et^WnT;. a magnificent ex- 
hibition piece from the fainou.s Or- 
rtlors glass works, scfeens. lamps 
and other u.a.jsual examples of 
modern oesiga will 'be Included in 
the exhibition,. _ ..'>j* u... / ^■ 



OCTOBER ^^. ;§29, 



Guest atTei:. 



Arti and Crafts to Si^ow Her 
Jewelry ' 




lAism JIari* «'r"**r^ft"> (o i>e fuest of hxU and Craf U ■fiodetyi^. 



69 



f IcP X>^"^'^^'t.^ 'S"'''?- ^UNPAY,_ APRIL 20. 1924. 



RITII TO OfllCE 

iiT mm m 



Will Enliven Formal Opening 
■■ 9f Arts and Crafts Spring 
Exhibition.- 



- ,T>« InvUntlot* which ^8r# tasued 

tiiJt weflc to tha liaitcr .le* fU^ 

^prir.g- Kili'.bltlpria of tf.e Society 

of Arts ard Craf;B ^Prf xd llvjly 

:ir.rt chc-Lffu) a^ Iht^ firFt orocua. 

i Th«», M. ifty t'lins to'yiave dlf- 

r<vjv«reij thrft tliffa Ip eucb a thinr 

uJb :Xr^?"l'i3 Ink'wMcti ccn be u«e4 ' 

In "hfe case t>if effrct vvr» on» 
rif C6j<!ty. for both thr. gre'n Tnlc 
dnd thf d"liKlitful )ady uith h*f 
Power irartandf Hhkh $r.u"ed lh« 
jage, f ^6.^f•n^,•<-(l a Rrrtle. 

it Is roij-burtnif to Vnow that 
th(-j»e in tirrh tic.ns of prorr.lued g«y- 
Xly wHi b» 'viilfllldd by thf appear- 
sr.oe of ' ICMji." a form«r pupil of 
nulh St. DcmIb. who la In danr« in 
Ihf pliiyh\ii/«f pf the Foclely on th« 
»ficriic"<n of the Tea, Kridajr, 
April ;S. 



. Th»r» !.»• Jiiot b-ffi' l-ung ov»r- 
Ihe entmnce of the main cxlilhttlr'n 
r(.oni of the froclety a flnejy psecutfd 
carved vcuod panel by ijfnn Patjl 
SluBser. The panel Phowp a. lov«ljr- 
rh vt>>'"'<' "leolfcn of flgurea and tre'-B 
and has been eircut ed. with e«p»rf4T 
ref<;reiic« \o tU» epare oxer a mantel. 
• • • 

Tli9 vlfiior to tha ec-Sefy thl» 
week Is warned not to miss the en- 
(fiiglng: little bronie flgruiea w hl^h 
hive arrived rerently from Lllllari 
Link. She haa. *b they eay. a v.ay 
^Ith rbll'lfen w hlrh ,1b moat dfi- 
UphifuL 

Then, top. there la » lovely green 
iTonie cand^lahra with thiee fig- 
ure* entwined, which la dlBtlncllva 
and beautiful In d'NlgTl and well 
worth looking for Thla le the ■»\ork 
of Genev^T Viard. 

While tha arrt\al of the metml' 

■work of M»rl» Zimmerman has been 

duly announced. It remalni to b« 

aald that a real debt of frratltu^a 

lis owed to thla artist for \^rT fr6«» 

'dom and ip<<nlinelt y. .'.I 

?r.B aeem* not to be afraid. * 

trulj- refrephlnir trait.' 

, Perhapa only Ulsa ZImmermaj), 

for JnHJi'^ee. rould take- hlphly- 

ipollaJiei brass and uao It for thre» 

• tunntfB candleatlcVte In -which A 

lvln«-llJ«* p*"-«rn -wUh juat the rl«ht 

'Af%r*t At fcrmallty and Juat lh« 

rr.idJt ATflOunt of Bpontijjelt>' la com-i 

Ijin-fa.— ' ~" 'i:>f*:-f±^^^t ■ .i,. 

' Trom that 'h* turna as flaaliy'ia 
vb< rtiatJncllon of a gor^efjuF fold 
dinner «tr\ Ire. or tb* amualnr and, 
orl»l««l ■ comblnatJon"' OC • Chln««* 
|tnrp«1aln Trlth rotd. coral and jada. 
u) produce a cl^aret Jar. or' to coji» 
p«r flower holdor« in fresb pattorna. 



70 



WEXBIBiTmN 

!S annOuncei 

,1^ 




01 Designer in Pre 
cioiis Metals Will * 
Be Shown 



Aa BJthlbltlon By Marie Zirnme 
mkn, designer lA precious meta 
■will be held at the Glbbes art g? 
lery from March 12, through Ap 
8, it ik announced- Special cases a 
now beftig. built t^nd the show w; 
be In the iTbtanda of the gallery. 
The following latter about M: 
Zimmerman haa been received by 
N. S, Whlteiaw, dir^tor of the g> 
leryj from Mai-y Fanton Rober 
edttoir of I^cdratlTe Arts. 

"I had the pleasure of li long vl 
to your mbst Interesting Galler 
when 1 waa in Charleston 1( 
eprlng. I thought your collect! 
exceedingly interesting and enjoj 
toy timer In the galleries very ma 
"And flow I hear that Miss Ma 
Zltftmerman of the National A 
club. New Tork, Is to exhibit w 
you In March and I feel (because 
my feeling for her and my inter 
In your museum) impelled to wr 
land 8*iy how mutually beneflcia 
thfnk such a show would be to M 
Zimmerman and to your beautl 
Iclty. ■ , ^ 

"It mllfht Interest you to kn 
(how New York regards Miss Zi 
imerman's work. I think I am qv 
right In saying that she excels 
the art of her craft In this couni 
'She is not only the foremost wor 
In metals from ''Iron to gold but 
the greatest artlaan in^the field 
beautiful home accessories and 
qulslte objects d'art which inclu 
lovely things for toilette accessor 
for table sliver, jeweled boxes, ; 
I ornaments. In fact, almost anyth 
[that beautifies the home and 
! owner of the home- She has a r 
'gift In the combination of one vm 
,wlth another, not only In form 
[id 6oIor«. 

j "Her approach to different perl 
'of fine metal work Is extremely e 
Isitlve. She use^ a Chinese precl 
stone «is an artisan of a great CI 
iese period . would use them, 
[delicate crystal and bronze can' 
|abra might have spretld the II 
iover an Italian medieval banc 
Itable. . 

"Allhongh she does no^? hesuat 
'respond toth* Influence of the g 
art peridd* she is a definitely ■ 
iative artiat» In the making of b« 
tlful table service, of *fine Jew« 
lahe Is extremely Imaginative 
capable^ Bhei, has many thnea f 
called the Ceillnl of her day. 
she possesses his kaowledge 
architecture as well fw the g 
Italian's wit Hnd imagrinatior, 
has a most carefully trained t' 
nlque and has the authority < 
cultured background for the s 
"holism of religious form n.^ wel 
ah unusually wide appreclattoi 
architecture. 

., "It may seem that I a/n sayii 
'great deal of Miss Zimmern- 
work, but I have follovkfed her 
vejopment and watched her sue 
for many years, and I really 
that she Is one of the people 
should be most proud of in 
Country; ^nd 1 am sn delighted 
*he ie to have the happincs: 
Bhowing her work In such a b 
ground as your galleries and In 
ijb appreciative sj^ot as Charle 
yhlcb to me is orte of the If 
fMaces Irt America." 



■■^'' 



EXHlsmoNW 
SILVER, JEWELRY 



Exquisite Designs bjr Miss 
Zimmemiann at Art^. 

— — ' ' '"' S^"> 
Thfcse who have not mti(sUii 

themselves of the opportUok^ 4#' 
view the exhibition of bronse% MU 
ver, and Jewelry, by MaOrle ZlA- 
nSermann, which have been on vl«t» 
at the Glbbe« Art gallery for m^: 
eral w^eks, should loM no tint* In 
•-vailing themselrei of the opi^or- 
tunity to sea the display whl^h' 
will doubtWte attract them to ■«▼- 
etal return visits before tit* «hdw 
closes on Wednesday, AprU f,. t» 
Is out view free to th« pn&lio la. 
the rottnida ot the butldltift «i»i'« 
ilally attracts a large nna^'J0i 
visitors and has proved mi exhlM 
«on of outstanding popularity. • 1 
Mlsa Zlminermann'i work itavttM 
* wide range of metala, vtohAK. 'iflt" 

Mtlng studies Of /d«*rlM lL>bi^- 

orlng, fashioned on the lottUi <" ^^^^^^ 
models for fountaltt*; »■ m64^ i 
bird bath; silver bOi^"- jJJ 
gorgeous and geni-enctti*t*d: 
ver disoM; a pDld-wa»aii?!3, 
service} hage maaslT* anakttua^ 
minute and delicate UMtea, and^i 
op throu,^ . v»rt«i and fJc^J?^ 
Itig array. ^^ •^•-^utm^.f i 

One of the loveliest of MiM Um. 
merma«B', thlaga 1* * A^h CTel 

W^nHn'f'":;.'**' «««Jgi*SfhS 
Of anUquo «lJ»cp ,rlth iu^ ^ 
ro^k crystal, and »«« cha^ ^ 
with smaU precious .to^^^ 
box ha* an ebony balTAnot^ 
■^ox of contrasting design 1. 1 



minlatnree; the <Sov«r U otM^ 



_ Wealth of OataQ , '^. ' 

The Inside* and back* at %it^ 

rl^f^i • 'V^ '" ■apphfrea, as thS 

made of Innumerable threads 9t 
seed pcarla. Baroque pearls and r^ 
bles also add color to the plec«. 

J^con. a gteafning yeHow ston* 
with an enamel shank; a star ml^ 
s?. with oaj-Hottohnn BapDhlr«a- 
precious Jade set with a Jwrder oi 
sapphires; and a ^•iamond aw* 
rounded by many carboucho* 
stones, a copy of a RHMoo rit»», In 
a sqtiare brooch may be seen a 
biark or Are opal In a pekcock ml- 
ttng. An Ivory bracelet is strtnt* 
together with enameled plecea a^ 
with rubles. Nearby are aqtiarac- 
Hnea get In old silver. 

An OTiusual Item in the show la ■ 
golden spur, eet with preclooM 
.«!fones. especially fashioned as « 
gift foi a young horsewoman. Of 
the many .racelets there Is a i»iM 
of carved white jade and patlnSfl 
enamel In a dragon design. 

Also Inchjded tn the show mW} 
cocktail seta, pen and cigarette 
hoWera. a silver di«h muff* on the 
pattern of an open shell. Arid nu- 
merous other articles of latrlcati 
and beaotlful wrnlcmamMi) and de- 
sign. ^ 
Miss Ziramerraann, •who has 1«)Wt 
In Charleston altjco befoir* fh» 
OTwnlng Of the show, ]• now a MMt 
of Mr. and Mm. Clarenca B. ChAp- 
man. at Muy>erry pUntatioh. / 



71 



Decorative Arts 

NeWYork C 



m 





/4^-,^®^ 




February 27, 1935 



Mr. R. Whitalaw WX. -^ l^"*^ ^^"^i ^P ^' 



Gibbes Art Gallery [J OtyJ^ 

Charleston, N. C. '' 



cill' 



Dear Mr. V/hitlaw: 



I had the pleasure of a long visit to your most interesting 
galleries when I was in Charleston last Spring." I thought 
your collection exceedingly interesting and enjoyed myi 
time in the galleries very lauch. 

And now I hear that Miss Marie Zimmerman of the National 
Arts Club, New York, is to exhibit with you in March and ^ 
feel (because of my feeling for her and my interest in 
your museum) Impelled to write and say how mutually 
beneficial I think such a show would be to Miss Zimmerman 
and to your beautiful city. 

It might interest you to know how New York regards Miss 
Zimmerman's work. I think I am quite right in saying that 
she excells in. the art of her craft in this country. 
She is not only the foremost worker in metals from iron 
to gold but is the greatest artisan in the field of beautiful 
home accessories and exquisite objets d'art which includes 
lovely tilings for toilette accessories, for table silver. 
Jeweled boxes, and ornaments, in fact almost anything that 
beautifies the home and the owner of the home. She has a 
rare gift in the combination of one metal with another 
not; only in form but in colors. 

Hei* approach to different periods of fine metal work is 
extremely sensitive. She uses a Chines precious stone 
aa an artisan of a great Chinese period would use thea* 
Her die lie ate crystal and. btonze candelabra might have- 
spread the llg|it over an Italian medieval banquet tab 10^ . 

Although she does not hesitate to respond to the influence 
of the great art periods she is a definitely creative artist. 
In the making of beautiful table service, of fine jewelry, she 
is extremely imaginative and capable. She has many times 
been called the Cellini of her day, and she possesses his 
knowledge of architecture as well as the great Italian* s 
wit and imagination. She has a most carefully trained technique 
and has the authority of a cultured background for the symbolisai 



72 



DECOKA.TIVB Arts 

122 East 42"»Strekt 
Nbw York Citt 



Whltlaw 



-2- 



Feb. 27, 1935 



of religious form as well as an unusually wide appreciation 
of architecture. 



It may seem that I am saying a great deal of Miss Zimmerman's 
work, but I have followed her development and v7atched her 
success for many years, ,and I really find that she is one 
of the people we should be most proud of in this country; 
and I am so delighted that she is to have the happiness of 
showing her work in such a background as your galleries 
and in such an appreciative spot as Char lest on, which to me 
is one of the lovely places in America. 

Cordially yours 



^ 



MFRAG 



Mary Fanton Robe 
Editor 




73 



FEMALE CEILIN 




Woman Metalsmith, 'Last of 

Great Craftsmen/ Opens 

an Exhibition Today 



^ AT THE GIBBES GALLERY 

1 — 

4 Man* Zimmermanu Shapes 

f Qold, Silver and Jewell 

^ into Lovely Patterns 



By FRANK ■. (tlLBRETH 

Th« last of th« great metal orafts- 
men, a businesslike woman about 
forty- Ave years old, yesterday wag 
arranging an exhibition of precious 
metals and gorgeous jewels at th« 
Gibbes Art gallery. 

Known aa the modern Benvenuto 
CelUnl, Marie Zimmermanu, assiat* 
•d by several male helpers, directed 
the placing of the objects, occa- 
sionally seizing a hammer or a pair 
of pliers with impatient fingers and 
securing supporting wires with ssv- 
«ral deft motions. 

The exhibition of her worksi 
which are worth a good deal more 
than their weight in gold, will open i 
today and will continue through 
April 8. A tea in her honor will oe 
given this afternoon by Mrs. T. 
Ferdinand Wilcox. Miss Ethel 15. 
Speaxs and Mrs. Sarah Spencer, of 
Teajnans ball. 

Thirty years ago, when Miss 
Zimmermajin was trying to ' decide 
whether to become a physician or 
aa artist, she saw advertised a 
coursA In metal work, at Pratt In- 
stitute In BrookI>-n. Against ths ad- 
vice of aJmost everybody, she en- 
roled in the coarse. Thus she em- 
b«rked on th« career In which shs 
now 1* recognized as a leader. 

On a large ta^ble in the foreground 
Of the exhibition is a dinner set of 
ffold. Every piece, from the knives^ 
and fork* to the plates, goblets and 
vases, were modeled In Miss Zim- 
mermann's shops In Long Island 
and New Jersey. Some of the workj 
hsA been done by workmen trained! 
toy her, but the diflBcult bends and^ 
artistic curves, are executed by her' 
own hand« 

Craftsmen Don't Fear Work 
"It takes work," she sold In an 
Interview. "The old craftsmen were- 
npt afraid to work until they got 
something perfect." 

The pieces of gold— actually they 
are, sterling silver with a heavy 
layer of gold put on by electrolisls 
— are modeled first in brass by Mlas 
Zimmermann. Her workmen then 
fniLnm >i»r- oatterns. 






follow her patterns. 

Rhodium, the noblest ot alt mat«<§ 
als, a platinum product, has been* 
used to plate several sterling sil 
ver dishes, shown in a separati 
display case. It is with rhodlun 
that Miss Zimmermann has be«l 
experimenting for the last severa 
years. The metal is as hard aa stea 
and will not tarnish. By pollshinsi! 
It in various ways, finishes re 
sembling platinum, ailver or pew- 
ter can be obtained. "When experi- 
ments with the metal have been 
completed, the housewife may b* 
able to tlirow her silver polish away. 
Possibly the moat spectacular 
piece in the entire collection is an 
object which resembles an Egyptian 
treasure chest. Carved from a mas- 
.sive piece of crotch mahogany. It. 
is colored in dull splendor wltfc' 
violet and blue beeswax. It is «na*, 
bossed with virgin silver and stud^i 
ded with lucent amethysts 

Kindles Different Emotions 
Neat, but not gaudy, some mi 
sa.v. Others might find someth 
in the deep dullness that would ra^ 
call the curse of the Pharoahs, af 
hidden mystery fashioned by mas^, 
ter craftsmen whose bones now ar* 
dust, by a mysterious, secret pro* 
cess, long since forgotten. , 

In another show case Is a earn- 
ing set, which Is made of ebony, 
gold and stainless steel. It Is down- 
right elaborate. 

In another are pieces of bronze, 
molded from models of wax. The 
wax Is melted away carefully be- 
fore the metal is poured into tbe 
molds. The process, which is nearly 
the same as the on© used by CelUai, 
la so exact that fingerprints left on 
the wax will be reproduced on the 
bronze. Some of the brasses have 
been dyed. That process Is MI»e 
Zhnmerniann's. 

But none of her processes !• 
secret. She la perfectly willing te 
tell how each piece was made In her 
shops. Apparently, she Is confident 
that, despite methods used, her 
work cannot be duplicated. Her 
secret lies in the hand!* of 'aer 
hammer. 

"If you know how to tise a ham- 
mer, it ie not tiring work to shape 
the pieces," she said. "The rebound 
lifts the tool for you. It Isn't at all 
dlfllcult work for a womaa." 

Werkmsn, Bested, Quits ^ 
On one occasion, a va«« wa# 
b<>ing made In heF' shops. MUm, 
Zimmeraiann's design called for as 
vase, which was Oriental In shatie^ 
to converge neajr the top, and th 
.'vpread out again, like a I&ri 
flower coming into bloom. 

"We'll have to Join two plecw. 
together." a workman told her. Olk$ 
piece of metal can't be made to tk 
It." *•' 

"If you thin it at the b«n4,. .It 
will do It," she told hln*. 

"N'o, It won't,"" the workman- r^ 
plied. 

Miss Zimmermann pat on a blW 
work shirt. She took the workman'* 
hammer. She started tappln* at tb« 
vase. 

Gradually, the metal began to a»* 
sume the required shape. The 
workman stffod silently by until h<>. 
saw that the artist was going to be 
able to do what he himself conld 
not do. Then he picked up his coat 
snd left the shop. He never came- 



74 



The News and Courier haa be«n ;^ 
askeo. to publish the following ap- 
preciation, written by a visitor '■ 
to Charleston, of the exhibition of 
metal craft and Jewelry now on 
view at the Gibbes art gallery. 

By FLORENCE A. GARNSEY ' 

No Charlestonian, young or old, 
rich or poor, should lose the oppor- • 
tunity ot seeing the beautiful works J 
of art now on exhibition at the 
Gibbes art gallery by Miss Marla^ 
Zimnnerman, of New York city. 
Words fall one In attempting to 
tell how charming and interAtths 
it is. Works In gold, silver, bronsev 
enamel and In Jewels of every con-: 
celvable color and design tell thik€ 
she Is a master of her craft- 

On entering the gallery, one see* 
a table set with a gold dinner serv- 
ice, superb in effect. A gold vase 
filled with flowers stands in the; 
center, flanked on each side by tall 
g'old candlesticks. Gold -service 
plates are set in place and at each 
place are goblets and wine •'glasses" 
of varying sizes with knives, foiks 
and spoons. It all seems too superb 
to be desecrated by anything so 
mundane aa food but one is told 
that It .is actually silver, heavily 
gold plated, which does not In- the 
least alter the gorgeous effect. It 
ought to be in Buckingham Palace. 

Onp case Is filled with brpn2e. 
vase.s and other articles, gilded and 
beautifully designed. . Other bronze 
pieces are actually dyed to the' > 
richest shades imaginable. How 
these superb color effects are pro- 
duced one cannot even guess. It Ifr ; 
no doubt the result of long hoursj I 
of work and experimentation and,; 
needless to state of great talent- 
There are vases with the ioVely" 
green patina one finds on pieces dug 
up by excavators in Pompefl, quite 
aa beautiful, exquisite in color and^ 
teTcture. 



Another Case Is filled with lovel* 
silver articles, beautifully deslgnei 
carved and chased in elaborate pat-' 
terns. A pair of bronze Renai»^, 
sance candlesticks stand in the cen- 
ter of the room. Clear crystal ballK 
hang from their gracetul branches, 
unusual and most interesting. 

A small model of a chapel to the 
right has an enameled • celling, 
beautiful stained giaaft at the baclc 
and before this, a pedestal with aa, 
urn of lovely fo*^. A wrought iron 
gate forma tUe entrance. It l» bo^ 
impressive arid ' solemn, and sug^t 
gests the work of a man, of severM 
men, lii fact, and all ot them ao 
tists of the highest caliber. ^ 

Then at' last dn*- conae* to tW 
case of J*we&k'. ;H)ow caa they b^ 
described? r O^ft »lrly revel* U 
the delicacy ot ofllbi and dMlgii 
AmethystB ^ are iurrounded Ijj 
smaller atonM tl» every conceivabtj 
shade, dark opAls flashitiK witil 
greens and blue», are aet aboilB 
with Jade 4nd diamonds. Earln(i 
ot aquamarine. cl«ar and lucen^ 
hang: from diamond leavea»- Onl 
finds earing* and necklace of var-* 
led colored gold laa.ves from whiel 
depend lovely tiny flowera cut tro«i 
translucent atones of every Imagtac' 
able shade. A heavy rope of ae<M 
pearia Is decorated with Jada *"» 
ansunel and finished with tasscll* 
of seed pearls — but one could go on^ 
forever- and atiU not hope to d« 
Justice to the superb beauty an^ 
the wonderful craftmanship of thl^ 
e'xhlbltlon. It is simply ursur-5 
passed and if one misses It, whoi 
knows when such an opportunity; 



I will arise again, so — don't miss itJ 



75 



THE SANTA BARBARA N]::\VSyPRI':SS 



.1)/;— 

Aiiisls \o Hold 
Excellent Show 
At Faulkner ; 

M;--; Malic Zlniiiiii ir.dn, of 
.\'( AV "^'nrk, kri.')\m Hs tlio fmC'Kt 
ciTifl-'iiidn in Uiis (.nvinto', will 
hold Gil exhibition of her work 
in tl.e Faulkner gallery in tlio 
jnjbhc library opening Sunday 
for a n'lonth. Known as the Col- 
Jini of her d.iy, Mies Zinnivi man 
will show e-AfjUiviic jrwehy siie 
\as ci'i-atcd, )iqx(-s and orn.jnunis 
n tjold, sihcr, l)icin'/.e ami luass. 
Exhibiiing wiiii Miss /.iniujcr- 
■nan wdl be Ruth Tiurke who 
will j-how wax portrait minia-. 
turcs, and Erica von Ka^'cr of 
Zurich, Swiizcrkuid, wIiosl- jior- 
tr.'dls of children, Ijiid^tajie and 
still life are well knoun on both 
contuicnts. 

Miss Burke is one of ihc few 
arUi^vs in ihi^ counuy who have 
retivcd the ancieni an of wax 
pc^trailure. 



John M. Gamble^ 
Praises Show 
At Art Gallery 

The K.iulkner M. i:K.ii;d Art 
^'allciy .'-hoiild atii,.(!. a n-i-ord 
aitundame during the innnih of 
Maich. accoiding to .Ir.hn M. 
Caniblc, well known artist, who 
!-a.\.s "It has never .-hf)vvn ns im- 
|Mc>>i\o an exhibit, noi- had as 
inudi the character of a mciro- 
l>''liian museum. 

"The main gallciv is pi\i>n 
'>\cr to Marie Zimnicrman's 
.icwojs and metal wurk. wax mi- 
niatures ])y nxnh ]5urke and 
!pain(in«s by Ei'ica -von Kaper. 

"In the small gallery or print 
room is a fine collection by l-fo- 
kn-ai, lent i)y the Siaitle Art 
Mu'-cum. 

"Tlie woik of cai h aiti-i le- 
lacsitiir'd .vhnw's jnasioi!\- ir.di.s- 
manship. fine dcsjgn and dciid- 
ed p(i->(.nalU3'. 

"If one is capable of finding 
plra-uro in good dr.iwir.g, inter- 
esting arrangement of fnrm. 
Ix'autiful and no\ el color and 
materials, surely visits to the 
galleries should not be neglec- ! 



Noted Artists 
Are Entertained 
At Luncheon 

A luiuhoon was given >c,sler 
day at the I.ittlc Town club for.' 
Miss Mary /immcrman, MisR- 
Ruth Burke, and Miss Erica -.on.? 
Kager, noted artists who are hav-^ 
ing an exhibition in the Faulk-3 
ner memorial art gallery in that 
public library. Others in the 
party were Mrs. Jesse La-ky, 
Mrs. Wilfred l^uckland and Mrs. 
Charles Runyon of Hollywood 
and Mrs. Francis T. Underbill of 
Montecito. 

The artists have been enter- 
tained continuously at small Ixi- 
formal affairs since their arrival 
here the first- of the month. 
Their exhibition has attrarte(^ 
so\cral Inmdred \'isitors daily to 
the gallery. 



AS FOR THE REST OF THE 
EXHIBIT, IT ILL SUFFICE TO 
S.AY THAT IT IS WELL worth, 

anyone's while to drop in and »e« 
the beautifully artistic and gliMen- 
ing work of jewels and metal work 
by Marie Ziuimtnnan, which includ* 



\w V. by Mane -iiuimtnnan, which include , 
y ^ \Jj complete dinner set in gold -36 
\ .goblet*, 24 spoons, 24 knives, 12 




Vtf N, 5f„rk», 6 plates 
^* r>J <y_ with a crest of 



jnd 



serving uiensiU 
^>5f ^Q with a crest of a star o\er a crescent 
C_ ^^ over an oval enclosing another star 
«V ^r>d crejcent, very, very, golden,,. jSn 



76 



rnday J^ivemng, March 31, 1939 



THE SANTA BAR| 




Art:— 

Thousands View Faulkner Show 
Scheduled To Close On Sunday 



The exhibition of painling:., 
wax Tniniauin-s and jcwrhy at 
the Faulkner Memorial Art gal- 
lery which ends Suuday afur- 
noon at 5 o'clock has aitradc-d 
more than C,(XX) vi.Niiors binco 
it opened March 5. Few Santa 
Barbara people porh,ij)s reali/.e 
fully the great importance of the 
art wing to the jnililic lihrary. 
No other .single educational or 
cultural agent lir Santa Barbara 
tguals its range of influence. 

The two art galleries ^vith a 
new exhibition rath month fur- 
ni.sh an opportunity of .seeing 
jiot only outstanding jniiniing 
and drawing by American.s but 
ICuropean.s a.s well. Out of town 
visitors find the I'aulkncr gal- 
lery and art libr.u-y a .special 
altraclion. 

Arthur Miller, of the Lo.'? An- 
gcle.s Tijncs, wrote recently that 
a leading book dealer in Holly- 
wood reported more than half 
his. cash yales in the ]5asl two 
years were of art books. The dc- 
3^ |fl4.^a t ;tbe jibrai;j'jf o£^ ^**^<itei5il. 



1 cr.ifi andj 
s the sup^ 



moi.icrn .small hnu.s( >, furnish 
iiigs, leather and i/ici; 
diMuing, quite c-.\ci('( 

ply. 

The clijjping and piciinc files' 
which ton)])rise more than l(iO,»: 
000 items, had a (ir(»ilation oft 
K,5()l during tlie months of .Ian4 
uary and February. TeachersJ 
.school children, college students! 
and artists make con.stant u.se; 
of these files. ^ 

Prei-ident Roosevelt's commlt-J 
tee on "Recent Social Trends 
made the following statement: 
"From a social ])oint 
as contrnsted with art for 
.■-nke, the problem of art, like' 
that of irligion and recreation, » 
nuns today on ii.s service \o. 
man in his inner a<lju.-^tmcnt to' 
an environment which shifts 
and changes with une\j)lained, 
rapidity. Art appear? to be one; 
of the great forces which standi 
between maladjusted man and', 
mental breakdown, bringing hirnj 
comfort, serenity and joy." 1 



of view,, 
art 'Si 






LOVELY DESIGN ^ 



St. Francis and the Birds, a 
figur* of "Everybody's St. i 
Francis" in nllvcr executed by 
Marie Zininieruian of New 
Yorli iind on di.splay with rx- 
quisite object d'ail and jewels* 

=***''^TTflitiiffiAUi»amfnffinpi-i^ 



77 



Art. 



-,^ 



-/>xW' 



^<:/.. 



^ S -3J 



Tlirco Distinguished Artisls To Open 
Exhibition Today At Faulkner Galleiy 



(/ 






The \\f)rk/>f tin re fli.-.rm'^iii.-h- 
cd .'iitisis in (iiffcrcnt fii-lcis of 
aiti^-ljc cxjui'ssion should iiiuiu t 
sciiiTs uf visil')i->: lo Uic piih'jic li- 
hr;;i.y lomnri<j\v where tlic ex- 
liiliition ())«tn.5 in the Fanll.ner 
Mriiioiinl Ai( j,'.illri3-. Tlic ;iit!;-i.s 
inchido Millie ZiiiiineJiiKin of 
\'cw York, AiTK 1 ic.'i'.s oul.-lanfi- 
ing designer In piccious meials, 
Rmh Rurko ^nd Eiiea \ on \\.\v- 
>^er. This i=; lli< ir fiisl ,<^}iovv on 
tlic west coast, allhouj^h llieir 
woik 15 \vc)ikno\sn in tlie cast 
and in Euro]">e. 

When Miss Zininierjnan hnd 
an exhibition of h c r work in 
Charleston, Smith Carolina, 7,fXX) 
resi(Jents of the city vic-v.cd the 
sliow and -were tlirillcri at its 
beauty. There is nolliing she 




does nnt do fjorn tiny iiilrii.ite 
'•an'iiigs sol witli jireeinus f^loncs 
lo ^real Iwon/.e and iron rioors 
and gales. Her woi k on di. jday 
u'ill indude tabic service, jew- 
elry of rdl kinds, intiiealely de- 
signed l)Oves of silver, tiimin.d 
with golfl and ornaiiK-nlcd with 
jewels. One of llicse ))oxc.'» b.i.q 
an aneicnl tanieo on it.s lid with 
figures depicting Day and Night./ 
Tlie e;iiriCO is snrri/inuled \uth 
amethysts for night and tL-jniZ 
..u^gestiug day. 

Some of Mi.ss Ziinmei ;n,iii's 
things have been .suggesti-d by 
the ancient artists of the Renais- 
.''.incc, oihei's are lier own (fa- 
lion. Mi^s ZininuTii.an, of d:s- 
lingiiislud S\\iss ])jiTn1ag(\ was 
U^iii in Hrooklyn. .Stic stmiifd 
at the .\rt Sliuienfs League, the 
.Naiinnal Acadt-my and with the 
ci'urisinen themselves for ni.niy 
ye.Tr.'^. 

Miss B\nke is the first ailist 
lo i7'\'ivw the aiiLi<;nU p;4rl u£. 
niinialiui iiorlrailun- m wax. fa- 
tncajs in the time of the Indian 
H<'nais:.,iiiie. A lost art. M:^s 
J'aij ke cvoh cd and ( i ( .il<-(i ui.niy 
of the sicps. Jfer j)orl rails in 
tills mediuni have b(( ii dc-st lib.d 
a.v j)rc< joj.s heirlooms of the fu- 
ture. The artist started this 
w'oik wlien she went to England 
lo study enameling. 

Krua von Kuger. an Auslilan 
ai'tist wlio.se landscajies and jxjr- 
traits have won fa\ ojabie notice 
in this counli-)'. She has luld. 
one-man shows at Marie Siern- 
er's in New York, wiiere the art j 
critic in the New "i'ork 'Jimes 
has prais<'d her work. She will 
show port raits, flower paintings 



and landscapes. Her paintings 
have al.M) Ijcen exhibited at the 
Barbi/on-Plaza galleries. H t r 
jianiluigs of <hlldren have been 
praised especially. 

TJie artist received her tech- 
nical training in the schools of 
Basle in Switzerland and under 
Walilier Tbor in Munich. 



New.«-Prc.^3 Slntf Dioto 

WELL KNOWN ARTISTS 

.Miss ICiiili Kiirkr, iiotrd for hrr )i)iMi:i lures in A\;i\ aiiil 
Miss M.try /iiiii»MTi»ian (lighl) one. of .A nicrtr.i'.s tudsI f;inioiii« • 
rriifKMomen al \\\c K«iilknrr Mrmorial Art ^jallrry in tlie pul>» 
He library Ijhrrc IheU" >» «jiiJ« *>f '."J? »»h«vf§.,_ 



78 



Appendix 3 - Marie Zimmermann article, "Cinderella of the Metal World " 
Arts and Decoration , May 1940, pp. 13, 14. 



79 




s 



I 



I 






AMtrS & DECOitATIOIS 



^Volume LI I 



May 1940 



Number 1 






Mary Fanton Roberts, Editor 

■Willard Fairrhild. Arl Editor 



CONTENTS 

(loMT Design Courlesy Morgan Company 

Houses Inspired iiy Ainerii-an CoIoni:iI — Fretit^rii k W. tf vtls 

Lights anil Shades 

Flower Holders Go Lllramodern 

I'.inderella of the Metal \X orld — .Worie '/.immcrniati 

At Home with Novotna 

Tlie W ay of Silver in 1940 

Klhow-coom is the Keynote Here — Herbert Williiiins 

Waterfowl that Stay at Home — K. S. Ginifter 

(Colonial Williamsliur): 

Swedish Handirrafts Antique an<l Modern — Joim Kiim\ .... 

The Out-of-Doors in New Wallpapers 

8 Most Favored F^ook Garden Plants — L. N. Christiiinsen . . . 
When You I!uild Your Home — The Wall.- — George !\'elson . 

New Coverlets — Simple and Sophisticated 

Meet Sinnnier Half Way 

Antiques for the Home 

Talking Shop 



l:t 

16 
IS 



21 
2A 
29 
30 
32 
3i 
36 
H 



ARTS & DECORA'nON is published monthly l>y Mel?ri<l., Andrews & 
Co., Inr., Hohert M. MiBride, President; I",. C. Turner, Secretary. Pub- 
lication oHicc: 3t North Crystal Street, East Stroiid-hurg. Pa. F.ditorial 
and general oflires: 116 East 16lh Street, New York, .advertising oflices: 
New York— 116 Fast 16th Street; Chicago— 919 N. Michigan Avenue: 
Detroit — 710 Stephenson HIdg.; San Francisco — Russ Rldg.: Los .Angeles 
—536 S. Hill St.: London, F.C.4, England— 23 Flc<I Street. Subscription 
price: One year, S3.00: two years, Sii.OO. For Canadian postage add ■")0c 
per year: for foreign postage add $1.00 per year. V^ c are not responsilde 
for imsoliriled manuscripts or illustrations. Copyright 1"'I0 liy McBridc. 
\nilrews & ("o.. Inc. Printed in U.S..\. 








80 



Cinderella of the Metal 
World 



By Marie Zimmerman 



Photo: Frances Benjamin Johnson 









AWROUGHTIRON f^.itc-^.,.. 
bell pull and lanlfrn, ^]ll dt 
signed by Mane Zimmcrm.in 
Miss Zimmerman s life ha>; been 
given over to working m the field 
of wrought iron, the finer met.iN 
and prt i '. i < 



w, 



R()l'(.H I iron and (;ist iioii. inu 
ihf product of forged won and tiie oilin 
of the furnace, are (he two fimdameiit.iK 
ot the many decades of decorative iron 
work ill all the countries of Fnropc .uui 
;hc Orient. Ahhoiioh iron is ilic Ic.im 
expensive of all metals there is no iii.ik- 
lial which lends itself to moic iKaiiiilnl 
tiealiTient. The method ol handlini; itoii 
is simple and direc t, vet in some icspct is 
it is the inost difficult medium in wliidi 
to ivork. 

Naturally a metal in itself can neithei 
be regarded as base nor pret ions: ii is ilic 
[loiiit of view towards the metal, the use 
to which it is put and om treatment ol 
it that places it either in a n;la.ss ca.sc or 
in our kitchen closet. This is nartit ii- 



LEFT — This garden en- 
trance has a wrought-iron 
gateway which is planned in 
a ver>- modern spirit, with a 
design of leaves and flowers 
— all very simple and un- 
crowded. The stone wall at 
either side, covered with 
climbing roses, adds greatly 
to the beauty of the design. 



RIGHT — This wrought- 
iron window grille is .1 
decorative note on a home 
at Lake Forrest. The design 
is modern and very char- 
acteristic of the artist — Oscar 
B. Bach. 




81 




Photo: Mnttie Edwards Hfv 



lariy mic ol iron; it can be developed into 
sonu'tliiiij; of hrcntliless beauty, as witness tlic 
grilles and wjns, the balconies, handrails and 
cathedral "embroideries" on one hand, and 
the great iron pots and saucepans and modern 
machinery on the other. Precious iron is 
largely the product ol imagination and dex- 
terity; the mechanically -minded think ol 
drain pipes and sewers, both necessary but not 
apt to be ornate. It is your responsibility or 
mine or the manufacturers if pig iron is to 
be made into a fine decorative product. And 
what is true of iron is equally true of wood 
or steel or concrete. It is the approach that 
regulates the products. Po.ssiljly no other 
meial has been so important in t!ie decorative 
development of our civilization as iron; be- 
ginning away ba< k before the Christian era 
and today receixing a fresh ini|)ulsc' lioiii liie 
interest in Modern design. 

The products of the ironmongers' work 
have l>een noted in eras of thousands of years 
before Christ and samples of pig iron have 
been found in Chaldea, Assyria and ancient 
I'.gypt. The Hebrews were acquainted with 
the art and the (;reeks are credited with the 
craft of casting the first statue in iron. Cur- 
rency bars which have been foinid by the hun- 
dreds in various parts of England, proxe that 
the Roman settlers found iron \ery satisfac- 
tory as a mediimi of exchange. Ry the tenth 
ccntmy there was a widespread use of iron in 
the Orient, r.uro|)e and Fngland, and later, 
when the building of the great cathedrals 
began, ironwork found its lirst essential place. 

In .Spain, the Renaissance period of iron- 
work reached a height of grandein- attained in 
no other coinitry. Of all the Spanish crafts- 
men the smith and the armorer were the busi- 
est, especially in the sixteenth centmy. The 
ironwork, which in Spain towered above all 
others, may be seen in the rejns of monu- 
mental si/e to be foinid in many of Spain's 



ABOVE, left— French wrouglit-iron work o( 
the eighteenth century formed the door 
of the chapel of an ancient church in Avignon 
It is at present in the Musce Olvct in P.iris 



ABOVt;— A Spanish wrought-uon wcilhcaJ 
at the home of Mrs. Ben Lyon in S.inta 
Monica. California has a b.ise finished with 
Spanish tiles. It fits in harmoniously with the 
Spanish-type house designed by W. E. 
Flannerv. 



ABOVE — Entrance to the garden on the 
estate of Mr and Mrs. Harold F. Pitcairn 
The distinguishing feature is the modern 
wrought-iron gateway. 



ABOVE, right — The inset porch of the home 
of Lillian Kolb it Palm Beach, with 
wrought-iron balcony, columns and lintels, all 
showing Spanish iniluence. The floor of the 
porch is of Spanish tiles. Architect John L 



Photo: M.ittie Edv 




82 




Photo: Samuel H. Gottscho 



A BOVE, right — Beautiful wrought ircm cii- 
•'»■ closes the porcli of the guest house on the 
estate of Mrs. George Huntington in Charles- 
ton. The design is motlern with the technique 
of the medieval English wrought-i;on work. 
Simons S< I.apham. architects. 



A BOVE, extreme right — A fine wroughtirun 
■'»• arched doorway is used between the vesti- 
bule and garden in the home of Mrs. Frank 
Melville at Stonybrook, Long Island. The 
design is very modern and extremely felicitous 
for nn entrance door to a garden. 



LEI-T — Notable features 
in a Long Island estate 
.Uf the gardea on a raised 
leul. the double stairway 
.(ikI wrougJit-iron railings. 
John Russell Pope, archi- 
tect. 



gicai lailicdrals. 1 liese .sciecn.s were in 
MO way iiiicrior to the liigli alters, and 
examples of litis type of wiotight iron 
may be seen in the finest Spatiish 
(hutches. 

I'he Clothic tradition iti \ir(nto|u iron 
survived iti I-iance until well itito the 
sixtt'eiuh centtiry and was marked by the 
piodiiitions of the hiohest skill itt locks, 
knockers and caskets. I-or .sotiie titne, 
FratKe. like England, was contctit to 
make doors, furniture and hardware in 
endless variety; but utider the reioii of 
Francis I and Henry II famous designcis 
of ironwork appeared. 

At the lime of the accession of I.ouis 
XIV to the ihione of I'lante, the iron- 
workeis were acknowledged as the clever- 
est in lutrope, combining (me design and 
masterly execution, often so daring that 
they readied the limit of what was allow- 



able for the working in metal. 

During this same jx'riod Italy became 
the center of iron art work, especially of 
the more elaborate and rcxocco type. 
Fine examples of this period can still be 
seen in the rich Italian cities. 

The Orient should not be foigotten in 
the presentation of Classic decoiati\c 
metal. Examples of Chinese woik date 
back to .500 15. C. .A.t this time bronze 
was even more popular than iron, which 
became more and more imitative. The 
(itst record of ironwork in japan ap[)ears 
in the second century B. C., and the 
(raftsmen attained considerable skill and 
(juite a social jjosition. 

There arc certain fundamental prin- 
ciples of design and execution to be 
found in all (Continued on page 39) 



"^"^ 



HTHIS well de 
-*■ signed western 
home is built of 
wliitewashed brick, 
which ni.ikes an 1 1 
fective hackgroun 1 
for the wrought-jru;, 
railing and column 
The iron is of Ent; 
lish design, technt 
cally good and ap- 
propriately placed 



EXTREME right 
— Entrance door 
to the Monument de 
la Tranciu-e des 
B a i o n n e 1 1 e s in 
Erancc It is of 
forged irtMl, very 
modern .ind fr.lmed 
with fluted stone pi- 
lasters at eitiier side 



■^jfl: 




mm 



mf *<%&■: 






! I HI I ■'11 



Photo: Ernest Grahan 



83 



CINDERELLA OF THE 
METAL WORLD 

(Continued from jinge 15) 

iioiiwoik that is <^()oil, and llic 
(lattsinan wlio is iraiiicd as a 
(lesijfncr and iiiclal worker 
knows everyone of these. It is 
very important tliat material foi 
(his work sliotild not be taken 
from its propei splicre and used 
l)y tricks and ilhisions for other 
cnvironmepis. There are work- 
ers in iron lodav wlio attempt 
to make this nielal look like 
wood, gold oi hion/e, losing 
the signifKantc ol ironuork. 

Without the (orieit finish the 
full heaiilv ol the metal (aniiot 
be appreciated. Iron, like any 
other material, nuisi he finished 
aetoiding to its use and purpose. 
Interior ironwork should possess 
a finish that is the color of armor 
and may be polished as bright as 
silver. For cMcrior iionwoik the 
iron should be only slightly pol- 
ished and leli in ihe tone ob- 
tained from the forge. 

The iiomvork in this country 
lias, so far, been largely imita- 
tive; developed by the (lilleienl 
settlers who bioiight theii de- 
signs and lechin'cpies from Eng- 
land. I''ian<e. .S|iain and the 
Oiient. I'eihaps iliis is too 
swee|)ing a slatemenl. loi al- 
though we see French ironwoik 
in New Orleans. .Spanish along 
the .southern .Atlantic coast and 
in California. English in New 
England, wc also have in this 
(onnti y a number of outstanding 
ironworkers. The inspiration foi 
an American ironwork seems to 
be Nature in her more joyous 
Tiioods— flowers, birds, small ani- 
mals—expressed in an nnciowded 
design and by methods simple 
and direct; in other words- 
Modern. I remember that Coe- 
the once said "Nature and art 
cannot be .sepaiated without de- 
stroying art as well as Life." 

A great threat to modern iion- 
work. from my point of view, is 
the use of modern mechanical 
tools. In the iron of the past 
each piece spoke of the individ- 
ual artist— each hammer stroke, 
each tool mark pointed the mas- 
ter's ability and chaiatter. 

Of course, the foremost cpies- 
eion that arises in the modern 
mind is about the use of iron in 
the garden and outside the home 
of today. When is it suitable, 
when essential, and in what soi t 
of garden does a ceitaiti pel iod 
of ironwoik belong? Oast iron. 
although widely used in \i( 
torian days for poKli rails, siaii 



rails and lenees, is losing its 
vogue and wrought iron again is 
in the asccnclani. 

Of course the best possible 
|)lan. if vou desire to ha\e iron- 
work in your garden, is lo suit 
the metal work to the period of 
\our house and its accessories, li 
is leasible, as you have already 
seen, to secure modern Eieiu h 
ironwork; and for a Noinian 
house, with its flat, walled-in 
garden. French ironwork would 
be most suitable h)r furnituie. 
lanterns, doorbells and hard- 
ware. French work is (juite loi- 
mal and somewhat over-elabor- 
ate in its exeeutiou. yet suited 
lo the FieiK h |)eriod house or 
even lo the modern French col- 
lage. .\ matter to consider before 
getting loo deeply into the |>ur- 
c base ol ironwork is its expense. 
It is not more expensive than 
line garden sculpture but it is 
definilelv more expensive ilian 
ihc ordinary wooden garden 
pieces. exce])t |)erhaps in Cali- 
lornia. where there is much local 
ironwork made for its modern 
Spanish -Vmerican home. .Some 
ol ilie nielal craftsmen in the 
West are capable artisans and 
are doing work eminently suited 
lo modern houses and gardens. 
I'liil ill. It IS lalliei llie exception. 
Ol eouise. il you ari' having 
a dedniiely English cottage-, 
which may be cpiite a large 
house in this country, English 
ironwoik is suitable for stair 
balustrades, porch rails, fences 
and many garden accessories. 
Most of the English ironwork is 
definitely Traditional but never- 
theless haiinonious with the 
Modem English home. 

If the Italian villa is what you 
have in mind there are endless 
Iraclitional Italian |)eriocls that 
arc being widely and veiy well 
cc)|)ied in this country. Iron is 
especially picturesque with the 
pale, rosy-pink villa as a back- 
ground. Of course, it is not es- 
sential to use a great deal of iron 
in order to have a certain fine 
stability about your garden. A 
few old settles, which you are 
urged not to jjaint white, and an 
occasional chair, some courtyard 
lanterns and a stair rail, if your 
garden is on two levels, will give 
your garden a certain fine 
strength in the furnishing of the 
out-of-doors. 

There aie today well-managed 
loundries, where wi ought iron 
is developed in the forge and 
where larger |)ieces may be cast, 
not oiilv in sections but ;is a 
whole ill the (iif jn-idu pfoccss. 



84 



Appendix 4 -Article about Marie Zimmermann, "An American Worker in 
PP 28 29; 78^ "' Edgerton, House and Garden , February 1922? 



85 



28 



House. & Garden 



AN AMERICAN WORKER IN THE CRAFTS 

The Colorful Creations of Marie Zimmerman Show a 
Wide Range of Materials and Designs 

GIl.KS KIXJKRTON 



THAT erratic, capricious co- 
quette — color — who flaunts 
her jjcauty to adorn one cen- 
tury and hides Ix'nL-ath black cloaks 
of fear in another; who pours her 
glory over canvas and marble for 
one race and time, and vanishes 
mysteriously for generations; that 
captivating lure to prince and 
])au|x;r, to youth and age, has at 
last brought her witcheries to bear 
upon the art and artistry of this 
Puritan land. 

Greece with all her beautiful 
white art also found value in poly- 
chrome ornament, for the Par- 
thenon friezes, for her statues, even 
for the decoration of costume. 
India never l)uilt splendidly with- 
out color. She, too, had a great 
sense of the beauty of white, ijut 
intensified this with delicate 
tracery of red, blue, black and gold. 

French imagination has never 
quite been caught up in the magic 
of pure color. Subtlety, strange- 
ness, the eccentric in color combina- 
tion have held Paris enthralled 
always in the art world. For gen- 
erationb in .-Xmerica we have suf- 
fered from Parisian subtlety and 
Puritan reticence. We have thought 
color obvious and "unrefined." 
.And this blight has spread over 
art, architecture, dress and all 
manner of industrial art produc- 
tion, ^lorc than fifty per cent of 
the small homes in America are 
furnished in grays, wood-browns, 
dull-greens — a whole nation hypno- 
tized by the idea that color is not 
genteel. Terrible devastating word! But 
we are escaping; orange color no longer 
startles us like an oath, flaming scarlet 
surprises and pleases us in paintings, 
decorations and millinery. Fal)rics are 
woven with gay designs in Iiriiliant green, 
blue and red, intensified by bhuk. Rare 
and delicate tones are still, of course, 





Wroufilil iron candle and electric iif,nt jixiiir: 
Zimmerman. The electric light is hidden behind 



's designed hy Marie 
the sconce on the wall 





'^^ deemed essential for old period 
': rooms, and white and mahogany 
dominate Colonial interiors. Never- 
theless we are pleased with Poiret 
glass and Czechoslovak china, with 
lCa.st Indian em!)roiderics, l)rilliant 
Durant potteries. .And even in the 
more modem ]x.'riod rooms, differ- 
ent types of decoration are brought 
together with occasionally a very 
spirited note. 

In such work as that rare arti.^t- 
arti.san Marie Zimmerman is doing, 
color is an essential jjart of the 
value of her achievement. She is 
handling metal, especially iron and 
(()p{)er, in new ways, often with 
simple, spacious flower-like out- 
lines, and patines that vary from 
the gold of an old Cypress glass to 
the deep red of Chinese enamel, tin- 
blue of an Ivast Indian turquoise 
and verdigris that shades into sil- 
ver and gold. 

Miss Zimniennan .seldom use- 
brass. She feels that it is an un- 
responsive medium. "Just as you 
do not react to certain jK-opK. 
flowers or music" And with 
copper, bronze, iron, silver and 
gold she accomplishes a variety of 
l)eauty in art ol)jccts, in rare in- 
dustrial art pieces, in the exceed- 
ingly lovely accessories of women'- 
toilet. .American walnut she pre- 
fers to all other woods and handles 
it in a fa.«hion that expresses her 
appreciation. She has made some 
fine walnut doors with wrought 
iron hinges and latches and locks, 
some interesting chests carved, in- 
laid with color and witli elaborate fa.sten- 
in*s of white iron. Occasionally if slie 
comes across pieces of rare old Cuban or 
Ea.st Indian mahogany, .'^he will work them 
into a jewel casket, which, in turn,, will re^t 
on a finely designed wrought iron [wdestal. 
Her combination of wood and wrought 
iron and enamel and semi-precious jewels 




A lily-shnped howl is finished with blue 

patine shading into silver and rests on a 

wrought iron stand 



Table ornaments, designed so as not to obstruct 

the view or table conversation, ■ are made of 

bronze with sapphire blue patine 



This wooden jewel casket is decoeated with 

silver gilt, enamel and semi-precious stones set in 

a rich design 



86 



February, 1922 



is something wholly in- 
dividual yet marking a 
ti-ndcncy in the linc>t of 
American industrial art. 
C^nie we are lu.unched in an 
ajilireciation of the inherent 
essential beauty of all 
metals, jewels and colors, 
we will work out rare and 
original conceptions be- 
cause we have in this coun- 
try no traditions for art or 
artistry; we have no fine old 
goldsmiths to help and 
hinder us; but we have 
marvelous new semi-pre- 
cious stones in great varie- 
ties, which with a rich 
handlingofmetal and stones 
and a completely free spirit 
in design, should make us 
ill )ears to come perhaps 
the very best craftsmen the 
world has ever seen. Ex- 
npt in rare instances we 
are far from it now. 'I'here 
,:n' just a few genuine lov- 
ing workers, like Mi.^s 
Zimmerman, who are break- 
ing paths on stony roads, 
l;Ut who are making ver}' 
I kar our stupendous po.i- 
sibilities for a beautiful, 
rich industrial art in 
America. 

Like most real artists, 
Miss Zimmerman. is an ex- 
cellent organizer. We have 
so long had the stupid no- 
tion that artists did not and 
should not understand business, 
that they were incapable of con- 
ducting their own affairs, that we 
permit ourselves to be astonished 
'.\lu-n we find that people with 
imagination also have Ijusiness in- 
genuity and abilit}-. As a fact, ex- 
ecutive ability and keen business 
sen.se require imagination, just as 
creative expression does. And the 
finer the artist, the more he has real 
contact with the world, the surer 
he is in cutting the channels in 
which he wishes his art to move. 
Not that he prefers buying and 
.selling or that the traffic of his art 
wins his interest, Ijut that he know< 
how to organize art and life; and 
that both are tx)rn of much the 
same impulse cannot be questioned. 
]\Iiss Zimmemian has trained an 
old blacksmith in Pittsburg into a 
most capable craftsman and he 
has done some of her most beauti- 
ful wrought iron work on his old 
forge where formerly he shod 
hor.ses. 

In the same wa}-, up in Maine. 

For a loggia was created this 
bronze n'all joimtaiii on a 
.\lab of stone about which 
vines can be trained. The 
bowl will be used for flowers 




A wrought iron 
table of intricate 
design bears an 
old Italian 
marble top. The 
candlesticks have 
electric lights 
under the leaves 



Cigarette box 
finished with old 
Roman patine, 
green and gold, 
on a simple 
■.■jrougkt iron 
stand. Cornelian 
dolphin handle 




she found a farmer wht 
was at heart a craftsmai 
and he helps her now witi 
the carpentr)- work for he 
furniture and jewel boxes 
in' other words she is nc 
onl}- an organizer but : 
teacher. And this again i 
a predominating qualit 
among great arti.sts— Ih 
desire to teach in the fines 
sense, inspiring others t 
work and enabling them t^ 
know how to accomplish. 

Miss Zimmerman is a 
great a lover of woods a 
she is of metals. She neve 
stains or paints a w(X)d, Ijl 
liandles it with loving (an 
bringing out all its natur; 
t)eauty. Her patines fc 
metal work are develope 
with the affection wit 
which she carves her wood 
cuts her stones and presst 
straight pieces of iron an. 
copper and bronze int 
lace-like fantasies. 

Some of her -finest furni 
ture is made of wrough 
iron, as. for instance, th 
table for the home of Mrj 
Glen B. Grosi)e(k of Cin 
cinnati. It .somewhat sup 
gests the wrought iro 
tallies of Mediaeval Ital) 
and its top is made of o\ 
Italian marble. But fh 
standard, the strong rivete 
supports, the Ix-autifi 
ornaments of vines and wreaths an 
flowers are essentially Mi> . Zin 
merman's own way of handlin 
iron, in which you always fin 
strength and permanence with del 
cate lieauty. On this table are Xw 
wrought-iron candlesticks showin 
also a device which is wholly Mi' 
Zimmerman's. Real candles at 
used in the upper part of tV 
candlestick, but back of a finel 
modeled large iron leaf is place 
an electric light which throws 
diffused glow on the wall and oi 
into the rooms, so that you have tl 
sense of the delicate fiickerii 
candlelight, and yet the warme 
fuller lighting of the room fro 
the electricit}-. 

In another picture wliidi illu 
trates this article a tall, slend' 
candlestick is shown, exquisite 
designed and modeled for cancll 
only, but above it is an electr 
sconce with the lighting back of 
silk shade. In practically all ii 
stances Miss Zimmerman combine 
the two kinds of light with sati 
factory effect. 

For a client who wanted tal) 

ornaments that in no wav inte 

fered with delightful table iiite 

course, Miss Zimmerman designe 

(Continued on page 78) 



87 



An American Worker in the Crafts 



(Continued from page 20) 




A walnut door designed by Miss Zimmerman. 
She -iXias not only designer, hut carpenter and 
craftsman for the wrought iron hinges and latch 



a low bronze bowl in a gorgeous blue 
patine resting on a wrought iron stand- 
ard and tall bronze candlesticks also 
with a blue patine ; the twisted stems 
above the bobeche, wrought iron flower 
petals hold candles that are two feet tall. 
The effect is rare and extremely in- 
teresting. 

Her copper flower dishes arc perhaps 
her most original achievement in dec- 
orative metal. We are showing one 
beautiful model on a wrought iron 
pedestal finished with old Roman pat- 
ine, green, gold and silver. A copper 
flower holder on a marble slab is another 
design of great beauty. The patine is 
also a Roman patine and the pendant 
in front a soft green jade. One of 
the most interesting of these flower 
bowls is as though a great lily were 
pressed' together on two sides and ex- 
tending widely across the wrought iron 
standard. The patine is a curious dark 
blue, broken with silver. Filled with 
violets and a single orchid, a color 
scheme of almost unimaginable beauty 
would be achieved. 

A cigarette box with an old Roman 
patine, green and gold, is a real accom- 
plishment in artistry. The pedestal is 
very simple in wrought iron and the 
handle of the lid of the box is a dolphin 
of cornelian agate which is beautifully 
carved. 

A collection of fans which Miss Zim- 
merman showed in her exhibition at 
the Ehrich Galleries in December is 



perhap.- the mo.-t unique development 
in the art of fan-makinu since the days 
of Walleau, Lancret, Vernis Martin and 
Carratci; but so remote from these 
fragile bits of late ami carved ivory 
with delicate paiiitinj; that they be- 
come at once a symbol of our kind 
of civilization and our sense of beauty. 
Miss Zimmerman, first of all in making 
a collection of fans, has beautiful flat 
ostrich feathers sent to her in every 
variety of brilliant colors and delicate 
shades. From these she combines a 
dozen or more color schemes in in- 
teresting and quite unique tones. These 
are placed together in ways to accent 
the beauty of the color of the feathers 
and then beautiful handles are arrang- 
ed. Sometimes a complete handle 
would be taken from an old Syrian 
narghile, or a bit of jade would be 
combined with modern semi-precious 
stones and beautifully wrought gold, 
or the ornament of an old Chinese 
jewel box may be introduced with 
carved white crystal and opals. 

In addition to jewelry of distinct 
originality, of rich fantasy and per- 
manent beauty, there is almost no in- 
teresting small art object that MisS' 
Zimmerman has not worked out in 
some delicate or splendid arrangement 
through the channels of her own imag- 
ination, from elaborate cigarette hold- 
ers in amber or jade or crystal to 
finely wrought gold spurs inset with 
jewels. 



Appendix 5 - "Metal Works by Marie Zimmermann, " exhibited at Colby 
College Museum of Art, April 23 through May 30, 1982. Compiled by 
Gay Zimmermann. 




89 



KETAL WORKS BY MARIE ZIMMERMANN 

Exhibited at Colby College Museum of Art 

April 23 through May 30 
1982 



(Compiled by Gay Zimmermann '82) 



91 



Marie Zimmermann was born of Swiss parents in Brooklyn, 
New York, on June 1?, 1879. She was the fourth child of five. 
Independence and a high level of achievement were reflected 
early in Marie's activities. When she was 13 years old at the 
family's farm in Pennsylvania, she first went camping overnight 
alone. She brought her sleeping bag out into the woods, caught 
trout in the brook and cooked them over a fire for her dinner. 
In Brooklyn she won many prizes for horseback riding. When at 
the riding academy she discovered a huge Arabian stallion that 
"nobody would ride, Marie jumped on him and he was hers." She 
tamed the rearing horse sidesaddle but later foxmd little time 
to worry about the behavior proper for a "lady" of the day. Marie 
had to make a decision whether to become a physician or an artist. 
She attended college i "in one door and out the other," but then 
a course in metal work at Pratt Institute brought out her natxiral 
abilities in art. She studied further at the Art Students 
League in New York. Then despite her father's refusing to talk 
to her for a year, Marie took a studio at the National Arts Club, 
15 Grajnercy Park, (and became -a life member.) 

At the National Arts Club, Marie designed jewelry, carved 
wood and metals and formed models for pieces. The heavy work for 
the pieces was done in her shops in Long Island and and New Jer- 
sey. Marie used her studio also as a gallery to display her 
finished pieces. At first Marie's jewelry -making and metal work 
were merely hobbies. She gave pieces away. Then her work became 
a business. Friends and their friends came to her studio to dis- 
cuss commissions. A woman going to a fancy ball at the Waldorf 
for instance might need an amethyst necklace to go with her 
pxirple V-necked long gown. Marie would design and make it for 
her. Other pieces were ccmpleteV of Marie's own whim. She went 
often to the Metropolitan Museum of Art to wander through the 
Egyptian, Far Eastern and Greek rooms for inspiration. She rep- 
resented ancient stories on pieces and sometimes used aspects of 
ancient styles. She made a gold pendant of Calipso surrounded 
by the animals and exhibited in Santa Barbara gold earrings of 



92 



2. 

Etruscan, RomsLn, Egyptian and Russian varieties. 

In most of her pieces Marie hoped to achieve a look of 
antiquity. A story often told is of a woman who took a brooch 
Marie had made to Tiffany's. "I want something like this," she 
told the salesman. He replied "Oh, but that is very old." In 
fact, Marie had just finished the piece the week before. When 
she sold a piece, Marie would tell the owner to polish the metal 
only with a wool rag so as to preserve its "heirloom" quality. 
Marie tied her work very closehrto nature also. In an article 
she wrote about the decorative wrought iron work of history in 
Arts and Decoration magazine, she quotes Goethe: "Nature and 
art cannot be separated without destroying art as well as Life." 
Marie did not stain woods, nor put black in her paintings, for 
"where do you find black in nature?" 

Marie was knowlegdeable about all aspects of the work she 
did. When workmen began to build a mausoleum she had designed, 
she would tell them in what quantities to mix the materials that 
formed the cement. She had an especially keen ability for veri- 
fying precious stones and obtained her gems from India and Africa 
through connections she had in these places. Most of Marie's 
artistry however consisted of hard work,"10?J inspiration, 90^ 
perspiration," as she put it. 

In the 30's when a law was passed requiring workers in silver 
and gbld to tell the government how much metal they bought and for 
how much they sold work done in these metals. Marie stopped 
most of her creating. "I am an artist, not a bookkeeper," she 
claimed. She became very depressed when her entire family died 
within a period of seven years. She continued into the ^O's 
designing wrought iron pieces for a local blacksmith (out of work) 
to make for herj and she did some painting, but slowly abandonel 
these crafts also. 

Marie's later life was spent between her Pennsylvania and 
Florida residences. She read as avidly as she had when she was 
young. She shot snakes and squirrels squarely in the head always, 
and occasionally would mention or give away her "junk," (jewelry.) 
She told her friend Ida one day, "wouldn't it be nice to die on 
some special day, not just any day of the week." She died on 
her birthday, June 17, 1972. 



li 



93 




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94 



METALWORK BY MARIE ZIMMERKAMN 

CATALOGUE. Measurements are in inches; dimensions used are indicated. 
Four marks used by Marie Zimmermann appear on the pieces in the exhi- 
bition. They are: 

1. The monogram MZ, in a circle 

2. M. ZIMMERMANN/ MJVKER (capital letters) 

3. The monogram, MZ, in a circle surrotinded by M. ZIMMERMANN 
(capital letters) 

4. The initials MZ with mark number 1 between the two initials; 
MAKER (capital letters) below initials and monogram. 

If a piece is marked, the number of the mark used is indicated in the 
catalogue entries below. 

BOXES 

1. BOX WITH COVER. Circular, incurved sides; slightly curved cover center- 
ed by handle with Oriental jade disc carved with house and tree; verdi- 
gris patina. 

Copper D. 8" 

2. BOX WITH COVER. Circular, tapering sides; cover with silver, white 
jade, turquoise and rose quartz finial. 

Copper, gold plated H. 5 1/2" 

Mark: niomber 1, bottom of lower section, center 

3. BOX WITH COVER. Oval with miniature of L'Aiglon (son of Napoleon and 
Marie Louise) bordered with large pearls and four amethysts; back of 
cover also back of miniature which has colored coat-of-arms ; side of 
box decorated with leaf design and precious and semi-precious stones. 
Engraved inside on bottom: King of Rome/ March 20, 1811- July 22 1832/ 
Baptised at Notre Dame/ June 9, 1811/ Napoleon Francis/ Joseph Charles/ 
Prince of Parma/ and/ Due de Reichstadt. 

Gold, pearls, precious and semi-precious stones L. 4" 
Mark: number 1, back of lower section, center 

Miniature painted by Gertrude Robinson, well-known early 20th century 
miniature painter. 

4. BOX WITH COVER. Rectangular rim, curving sides; slightly curved cover 
with semi-eliptical white jade handle set perpendicularly in a bronze 
mount; scrolled bronze stand; verdigris patina. 

Copper with bronze L. 15" 

5. BOX WITH COVER. Rectangular with curved comer and sides; slightly 
domed cover divided into light petal-like sections; painted with cin- 
nabar colored paint. 

Copper L. 9 1/4" (cover L. 7 1/2" (lower section) 



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mark: number 1 and 2, back of lower section, center 

6. BOX WITH COVER. Shaped oval; top with six semi-precious stones cen- 
tered by seventh, all set in gold. 

Silver, gold, semi-precious stones L. 4" 

7. BOX WITH COVER. Sides curve to rectangular rim; pagoda-like cover 
with deep overhang; painted with cinnabar colored paint; carved 
Oriental finial with figure reclining on elephant under tree. 

Copper L. 16 1/2" (cover) L. 12 1/2" (lower section) 

8. BOX WITH HINGED COVER. top centered by oval camelian cameo border- 
ed by semi-precious stones; gold and copper overlay design surrounds 
border; stylized flower in repousse on back. 

Silver, gold, copper, semi-precious stones L. 3 1/2" 

FLATWARE 

9. FLATWARE (one fork, two spoons). Fiddle-back handle; fork has three 
tines ; spoons have ovoid bowls . 

Silver with vermeil finish 

Fork: L. 7" Spoons: L. 7 1/2", 6 3/4" 
Mark: number 1 on backs of all pieces; also sterling on back of lar- 
ger spoon. 

Engraved on handles with coat-of-arms : These pieces are from Marie 
Zimmermann's personal service 

10. FORK. Three tines, tapering handle with curved end and twisted sec- 
tion above shoulder. 

Silver L. 9" Engraved H+H on fron of handle 
Mark: sterling and number 1 on back of handle 

11. FLATWARE (two forks, four spoons). Curved ends tapering to bowls of 
spoons and shoulders of forks; twisted section lower part of handles; 
forks have three tines ; bowls are pear shaped. 

Copper with vermeil finish Spoons: L. 7 1/4", 6 1/2", 5 3/4", 4 1/2" 

Forks: L. 7 1/2", 6 3/4" 
Mark: number 1 on backs of all handles 

12. SPOON. Ovoid bowl, slightly tapered twisted handle. 

Silver L. 11" 

Mark: sterling, on back of handle 



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HOLLOW VJARE 

13. BOWL. Elliptical with pointed ends; rim divided into six curved sec- 
tions; low oval base; painted blue. 

Copper L. 15" 

Mark: number 3 on bottom of base, center; also, 92 incised near mark 

14. BOWL. Low circular fluted form divided into 8 sections on low circu- 
lar base; painted with cinnabar colored paint. 

Copper D. 10 1/2" 

Mark: number 3 on bottom of base 

15. BOWL AND SAUCER. Bowl in shape of pond lily; saucer in shape of 
pond lily blossom with petals curved back. 

Brass D. 3 1/2" (bowl); D. 9" (saucer) 

16. BOWL ON STA^JD. Shallow saucer shaped bowl with incised lines on 
exterior and interior; openwork stand supported en three scrolled 
feet which alternate with flowers and leaves . 

Bowl: brass D. 7 3/4" 

Stand: wrought iron D. 9", H. 5 3/4" 

17. BOWL WITH COVER. Trumpet shaped flower form with rippled rim; domed 
cover with white jade f inial ; supported on stag. 

Silver H. 12 1/2" 

18. ASH TRAYS (two). Lily pad shape; tendrils curl and extend along back; 
one has verdigris finish. 

Bronze L. 4 1/4" 

19. CUP (liqueur). Inverted bell shape; stem composed of three strands 
of metal; circular foot. 

Silver H. 3" 

Mark: number 1 and sterling on bottom on foot, near rim. 

20. DECANTER. Circular with tapering sides; bulbous section form^ part 
of lower half of body; carved lapis lazuli and white jade finial. 

Brass H. 11" 

Mark: nimibers 1 and 3 (incomplete) on bottom, center 

21. DISH. Circular, divided into eight sections, shaped rim; raised on 
low circular foot. 

Copper with gold plate D. 10 1/4" 



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22. DISH. Cpen shell with flutes radiating from center to scalloped rim; 
supported on four snail feet. 

Silver L. 12 3/4" 

23. DISHZS (pair). Leaf shaped; curved handle in shape of stem extends 
into interior with leaves and one flower; latter missing on one dish. 

Silver L. 4 1/4" 

Mark: sterling on back of each. 

24. DISH AND SAUCER. Both circular in form; rim of each divided into 
eight sections be petal-like shapes; sides of bowl flare from round 
raised base; saucer divided into eight sections by ridges repeating 
petals. 

Copper, gold plated Dish: D. 5 1/4" Saucer: D. 7 1/2" 
Mark: number 3 on back of each piece 

25. GRAVY BOAT AND LADLE. Gravy boat shell shaped; curved handle extends 
down into scrolled rear feet; two snail shaped feet at front; ladle 
with shell bowl, curved handle with snail attached near end. 

Silver Gravy boat: L. 8 1/4" Ladle: L. 7 1/4" 

26. TEAPOT. Fluted, tapered sides, hinged domed lid with coral and ivory 
finial; curved handle with acanthus leaf and coral and ivory insula- 
tors; repousse decoration lower section of bod^r extending up to spout, 

Silver H. 7" 

Mark: number 1 and sterling on bottom, center 

27. VASE, eliptical shape with four curled and two upright petals forming 
the rim; handles formed by tropical bird motifs; verdigris finish. 

Copper L. 20" 

28. VASE. Circular fluted form divided into eight sections. Slightly 
flaring outward at rim and curving inward at bottom to sit on circu- 
lar base; painted with cinnabar colored paint. 

Copper H. 6 3/4" 

Mark: number 3 on bottom of vase 

29. VASE. Circular; curved fluted sides taper to round base; rim com- 
posed of six petal-like shapes; painted blue. 

Copper H. 8" 

Mark: number 3 on bottom of base, center; also 77 incised near mark 



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30. VASE. Flaring circular neck; lower section has flat tapering sides, 
angular strap handles; painted black. 

Copper H. 13 1/2" 

Mark: nvunbers 1 and 2 en bottom center 

31. VASE. Sides taper from slightly flared rim to raised base; two han- 
dles with stylized bat motif. 

Brass H. 10 3/4" 

Mark: number 3 on bottom of base, center; also 067 incised near mark. 

32. VASE. Urn-shaped; scrolled brass handles with verdigris finish. 

Silver and brass H. 9" 
Mark: number 3 and sterling 

33. VASE AND STAND. Vase with deep flared neck above convex lower sec- 
tion; stand with four large leaves supported on four small leaves; 
painted with cinnabar colored paint. 

Copper Vase: H. 5 1/2" Stand: L. 8" 

Mark: vase, ntimber 1 and 2 on bottom; stand, number 1, on top 

34. VASES (three). Set of three; central one based on lotus blossom and 
raised on curvilinear openwork base with leaves; flanking vases modi- 
fied cornucopia shape raised on three leaves. 

Bronze with gold finish 

Central vase: L. 18 1/4", H. 11" 

Flanking vases: L. 8 3/4", H. 10 1/2" 
Mark: niomber 3 on bottom of central vase 

35. WATER PITCHER. Four sided curved body; hinged m.odified lozenge shaped 
lid; square base; Greek key border on base and below rim; handle 
covered with raffia. 

Silver H. 7" 

Mark: numbers 1 and 2. Sterling and 925/1,000 on bottom 

JEWELRY 

36. BROOCH. Mount consisting of branch with grape leaves, vine, bvmch 
of grapes to hold coral putto holding cornucopia; snake entwined 
arovind legs of figure; one foot rests on grape leaf and two bunches 
of grapes. 

Gold L. 2 3/8" 

37. BRACELETS (pair). Two dragon heads with open m.ouths hold ball between 
them; green enamel on some areas of head and yellow enamel used for 
eyes; remaining section of bracelets composed of small coral beads. 

Silver and coral D. 3" 



103 








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38. LOCKET. Kinged circular mount for two cameos with semi-circular sup- 
port for chain. (One cameo carved with two heads in profile; second 
carved with Z in center.) 

Gold, copper, silver, onyx L. 1 1/2" 

39. PENDANT. Upper section of ten oval amethysts surrounding larger round 
amethyst; amethysts hang from upper section in three sections, the 
central one with three stones and those flanking it with two each. 
(Originally one of a pair of earrings). 

Gold and amethysts L. 2 3/4" 

40. RING. Oval camelian center with carved mythological female figure 
(Flora) ; gold sides inset with alternating design of blue rectangles 
and red dots in enamel; green and white enamel leaf between two carved 
scrolls in triangle patterns on either side of ring back. 

Gold, camelian, enamel L. 1 1/4" 

41. RING. Oval; green ivory-like stone carved with eight-petalled flower; 
five enameled blue and green triangles along partitioned area of gold 
on either side of ring back. 

Gold, ivory-like stone, enamel L. 1" 

42. RING. Rectangular amethyst in four-pronged gold setting; mythologi- 
cal scene carved in stone; gold sides have repeated alternating pat- 
tern of small sapphire or emerald between two narrow outstretched and 
slightly upturning leaves; upper and lower sides of ring setting car- 
with scroll and leaf. 

Gold, emeralds, sapphires, amethysts D. 1" 

OTHER OBJECTS 

43. CANDLESTICKS (pair). Socket with flat rim composed of six petals; 
base formed by inverted flower with six petals; rope-like twisted 
shaft. 

Copper, gold plated H. 12 1/2" 

Mark: number 1 and 2 on one candlestick 

44. CANDLESTICK. Socket with flat rim composed of six petals; base formed 
by inverted flower with six petals painted with cinnabar colored paint; 
narrow cylindical shaft . 

Copper H. 12" 

45. CANDLESTICKS (pair). Socket with incurved sides; central section of 
ivory stained reddish orange; bulbous section below ivory; inverted 
trumpet base. 

Silver with ivory H. 6 1/2" 



105 




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46. LAMP BASE. Branch shape with four flowers alternating with four 
leaves; tripod base of three coiled stems; painted black. 

Wrought iron H. 23 1/2" 

47. PLATE. Divided into eight petal-shaped sections. 

Silver plated copper D. 12" 

Mark: numbers 1 and 2, center, back. 

48. SHRINE. Two hinged doors with circle above contained within Gothic arch; 
paste diamond surrounded by three amethysts top of each door; m.oonstone 
with two aquamarines and two amethysts in circle; crucifix hangs in in- 
terior. 

Silver with semi-precious stones H. 7 1/4" 

Inscribed on back of crucifix: Emma 1916; inscribed on back of case: 
Emma Achelis Miller December 30, 1916 

49. JEWELED MADONNA IN IVORY CASE. Cylindical case; seated figure holds 
Christ Child; fiures are polychromed; Madonna sits on carved jade; 
lapis lazuli halo behind Madonna who holds star raby ; moonstone halo 
behind Christ Child; base and rim of domed top decorated with pearls; 
amethyst surroimded by pearls on top of dome. 

Gilded silver with precious and semi-precious stones H. 6 1/4" 
Mark: niomber 1, sterling and "The Virgin of the Ruby," bottom 

50. STAND. Small circular form with two types of leaves arranged in alter- 
nating design on scrolled feet; verdigris finish. 

Copper D. 5 1/2" 

51. ST. FRANCIS. Figure standing on rock mound; flock of birds around 
and above head; two birds on out- stretched arm; in hand held against 
chest. 

Silver H. 14 1/8" 



107 




Cast figure of St. Francis (catalogue number 51) 



108 



Critical Opinion - A Sampling 

Giles Edgerton, House and Garden , "An American Worker in the Crafts 
February 1922 

"In such work as that rare artist-artisan Marie Zimmermann 
is doing, color is an essential part of the value of her achieve- 
ment. 

For generations in America we have suffered from Parisian 
subtlety and Puritan reticence. We have thought color obvious 
and unrefined. 

Her combination of wood and wrought iron and enamel and 
semi-precious jewels is something wholly individual yet marking 
a tendency in the finest of American industrial art. 

It brought iron table) somewhat suggests the wrought iron 
tables of Mediaeval Italy, and its top is made of old Italian 
marble. But the standard, the strong riveted supports, the 
beautiful ornaments of vines and wreaths and flowers are essen- 
tially Marie Zimmermann 's own way of handling iron, in which you 
always find strength and permanence with delicate beauty. 

A collection of fans which Miss Zimmermann showed in her 
exhibition at the Ehrich Galleries in December is perhaps the 
most unique development in the art of fan making since the days 
of Watteau, Lancret, Vernis Martin and Carracci; but so remote 
from these fragile bits of lace and carved ivory with delicate 
painting that they become at once a symbol of our kind of civili- 
zation and our sense of beauty.' 

Florence A. Garnsey, News and Courier (Charleston, S.C.,) 
"Silversmith's Art," March 19 i 1935 

"...There are vases with the lovely green patina one finds 

on pieces dug up by excavators in Pompeii, quite as beautiful, 

exquisite in color and texture." 

The New York Times , column "Exhibitions for the Week," December 2, 
1923 

"Marie Zimmermann is extraordinarily sensitive in adjusting 

scale to material. An iron gate is beautifully designed, with 

perhaps more delicacy then iron is usually treated, but it is 



109 



2. 



certainly iron and belongs out of doors, a piece of jewelry is 
handled with proper respect for gold and precious stones and is 
eminently wearable . " 

The New York Times , column "Mid-May E:chibitions in Various 
Galleries," 1926 

"Her work [exhibited at P. Jackson Higg's gallery] is tan- 
talizing, in all as fine as it is when at its best. A pair of 
candlesticks, for instajice, shows beauty in the upper part — 
beauty of both material and purpose. The design is light without 
losing a sense of the weight of the medium. Crystal beads, tact- 
fully introduced, play with the light of candles. But when the 
iron reaches the base, it becomes both stringy and heavy." 

Mary Fanton Roberts, pfii t.nr^ Dprnrati vp Arts Maa^azipe. letter to 
Curator Whitelaw of Gibbes Art Gallery in Charleston, S.C. (in 
anticipation of Marie's exhibit there,) February 27, 1935 

"It might interest you to know how New York regards Miss 
Zimmermann's work. I think I am quite right in saying that she 
excells in the art of her craft in this coiontry. . . She has a 
rare gift in the combination of one metal with another, not only 
in form but in colors. 

Her approach to different periods of fine metal work is 
extremely sensitive. She uses a Chinese precious stone as an 
artisan of a great Chinese period would use them. 

She has many times been called the Cellini of her day. She 
has the authority of a cultured background for the symbolism of 
religious form as well as an unusually wide appreciation of 
architectxare. 

I find that she is one of the people we should be most 
proud of in this country." 

Margaret Breuning, New York Evening Post , section "About Artists 
and The ir W ork , " May 15, 1926 

"The rather dense weaving of leaves and flowers in the design 
[Montgomery Ward bronze gates at P. Jackson Higg's] gives the 
needed solidity and firmness to the doors without producing heavi- 
ness of impression. 

...The Egyptian influence interpreted (personally) makes 



110 



3. 

this monumental work have something of the serenity and tran- 
quillity of old Egyptian art, but there is also the skill of 
modern adaptation to new times and needs that awakens one 's ad- 
miration in this work." 

Harriet Ashbrook, Brooklyn Eagle , "Woman Master of a Dozen Crafts," 
June 6, 1926 

"In this age of specialization Miss Marie Zimmermann stands 
out as a iinique figure. Thirty years ago, when she began her 
studies at the Art Students League in New York, she looked at 
the works of the aincient masters of Italy, the Cellinis and the 
Michelangelos , and decided she wanted to follow in their foot- 
steps. 

She wanted to make exquisite bowls and chalices of gold and 
silver, fashion great doors and braziers of patterned bronze, 
create tiny jeweled drops for a lady's ear, carve beauty and dig- 
nity into chairs and tables. She confided her ambitions to one 
of her masters. 

*But, ' he protested, 'it will take you fifteen years to 
master the crafts which all this involves. ' 

'His estimate,' she now confesses, 'was too conservative. 
It took me twenty-five years, with each day of them filled with 
ten or twelve hours of work. ' 

The result is that today Miss Zimmermann is perhaps the most 
versatile artist in this country. She is a sculptress, a painter, 
a goldsmith and a silversmith, a cabinet maker, a wood carver, 
a jeweler — even a blacksmith. 

So nearly has she approximated the work of the old master 
craftsman that, not infrequently her products are taken for heir- 
looms of the Rennaissance . Not long ago at an exhibit one gentle- 
man was pointing out to a companion a beautiful, inlaid ivory box, 
explaining f'-om the heights of his superior wisdom that it was 
very old, probably had been hajided down through many generations. 

'As a matter of fact, ' Miss Zimmermann adds, 'I had just 
finished it the day before.'" 



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Marie Zimmermann Exhibits 

(discayejnz:j -fo dcx-s) 

1902 Art Institute of Chicago, First Annual Art Crafts Exhibit 
December 15. 1902 - January 10, I903 

1911 Art Institute of Chicago, Art Crafts Exhibit, October 3-25 

1922 Metropolitan Museum of Art, Contemporary Art display, 
(Purchased MZ piece) 

1923 Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts (exhibits through 1926) 

Ehrich Galleries (E. 57th NYC,) December 1, 1923 - Jan- 
uary 1, 192^ 

192^ Woman's City Club exhibit, April 

Art Institute of Chicago, 23rd Annual Exhibition of Modern 
Decorative Art, December 23, 192^ - January 25, 1925, 
(MZ awarded Logan Prize) 

1926 P. Jackson Higgs (NYC,) May 

1929 Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts exhibit 

193^ John G. Hamilton Galleries (E. 57th NYC,) T^ay 

1935 Gibbes Art Gallery (Charleston, S. Carolina,) March 

1936 50th Annual Exhibition Architectural League with the 
American Institute of Decorators, (NYC,) February 17-29 

1937 Art Institute of Chicago, Thorns Collection of Miniatures 
exhibited, October 15» 1937 - April 15» 1938 

1939 Faulkner Memorial Art Gallery (Santa Barbara) March 



113 



Marie Zimmermann Exhibits Continued 

Golden Gate International Exposition, Thorni Collection 
l^iiO Worlds Fair (NYC,) two exhibits 

Additional Marie Zimmermann Exhibits 
Montclair Art Museum 

Philadelphia Museum of Art - . 
New York School of Applied Design for Women exhibit (I890) 



114 




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115 



Appendix 6 - Marie Zimmermann logo, which appeared stamped on her 
metal works. 




116 



Appendix 7 

April 25 
May 5 
May 12 
May 16 

May 30 

June 6 
August 8 

August 22 
September 5 
September 26 

October 17 
December 5 



December 5 



- Excerpts from the Milford Dispatch , 1912, showing the 
visits of various members of the Zimmermann family to the 
area. 

"John C. Zimmermann, of Brooklyn" at the Milford Club 
dinner. Hotel Fauchere, Saturday evening. 

"John C. Zimmermann of Brooklyn was a visitor here 
Sunday. " 

"Charles Zimmermann and family of Brooklyn were over 
Sunday guests at the Hotel Fauchere." 

"John C. Zimmermann, and William Mauch, T.B. Moore and 
Lanty Armstrong" guests at the Fauchere over Sunday. 
The group returned to Brooklyn Sunday, by auto. 

"Charles Zimmermann and sister, of Brooklyn, at Hotel 
Fauchere." 

"Charles Zimmermann and family at Hotel Fauchere." 

"D.H. Hornback, is expected home soon from Stamford, 
Conn. The family of John C. Zimmermann, by whom he is 
employed as a chauffer, will also return to Milford for the 
balance of the season." 

"John C. Zimmermann and family are guests at the Hotel 
Fauchere for the balance of the season." 

John C. Zimmermann and others to the fair at 
Stroudsburg. 

"Mr. and Mrs. John C. Zimmermann and son Jack have 
returned to Brooklyn after spending several weeks in the 
Hotel Fauchere." 

"John C. Zimmermann of Brooklyn as a guest at the Hotel 
Fauchere on Sunday." 

"August Canne, who is in the employ of John Zimmermann 
on the River Road above town, had his arm broken at the 
wrist last Tuesday, while cranking the automobile of Miss 
Zimmermann. He was taken to Milford, where Dr. 
Kenworthy reduced the fracture." 

"John C. Zimmermann and family, Mrs. Zaiss and a party 
of friends were week end guests at the Hotel Schanno." 



117 



HISTORIC STRUCTURE REPORT 
Architectural Data Section 



MARIE ZIMMERMANN HOUSE 
DELAWARE WATER GAP NATIONAL RECREATION AREA 

PENNSYLVANIA 



By 

Kenneth W. Bennett 



U.S. Department of the Interior / National Park Service 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 
Number 



ADMINISTRATIVE DATA . 

Vital Structure Data. 

Proposed Scope of Work on Structure 

Provision for Operating Structure . 

Cooperative Agreement Executed or Proposed 

Structure ..... 

Annotation of All Related Documents 



ARCHITECTURAL DATA 
General Information 
Preface 

Acknowledgements 
History Introduction 
Physical History 

Exterior Appearance, ca. 1912 
Main Portion 
"L" Wing Portion 
Proposed Uses . 
Specific Problem Analysis 
Main Roof . 

Existing Conditions . 
Recommended Treatment 
"L" and Turret Roof 

Existing Condition 
Recommended Treatment 
East Eave of Main Roof 

Existing Conditions . 
Recommended Treatment 



for Operat 



ing 



1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
2 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
5 
5 
5 
6 
7 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 
9 
10 
10 
10 

11 



Page 
Number 



Bell-cast Eaves 

Existing Condition 

Recommended Treatment 
Shutters, Doors, and Windows 

Existing Condition 

Recommended Treatment 
Grading at West Elevation of West Wing 

Existing Condition 

Recommended Treatment 
Interior Finishes 

Existing Condition 

Recommended Treatment 
Landscaping 

Existing Condition 

Recommended Treatment 
Electrical .... 

Existing Condition 

Recommended Treatment 
Mechanical 

Existing Condition 

Recommended Treatment 

Follow-up Recommendations 
Specific Code Analysis and Compliance 

Main House Egress . 
Main House Handicapped Accessibility 

Exterior Egress and General Circulation 

Restroom Handicapped Accessibility 
General Compliance . 

Energy Concerns ..... 
Paint and Mortar Analysis 



11 

11 

11 

12 

12 

13 

13 

13 

13 

14 

14 

14 

15 

15 

15 

17 

17 

18 

20 

20 

21 

22 

22 

23 

23 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 



IV 



TABLES 



Page 
Number 



Existing Condition Photographs 
Existing Condition Drawings 
Bibliography ...... 

Appendix A. DSC Safety Officer's Report 
Appendix B. Package Estimating Detail. 
Appendix C. Insulation Analysis Report 
Appendix D. Structural Analysis Section 



29 
45 
61 
62 
64 
65 
66 



Interior Refinishing Requirements 



16 



V 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

Number 



1 . East Elevation ....... 

2. East Entryway (Interior Elevation) . 

3. Partial South Elevation . . . 

4. Partial South "L" Elevation .... 

5. West Elevation ....... 

6. Turret Elevation ...... 

7. North Elevation 

8. Basement Access (North Elevation) . 

9. Facade Features to Include Bell-cast Eave (East 
Elevation) . . . . . . . . 

10. Eave Soffit and Fascia (East Elevation) . 

11. Bell-case Eave (West Elevation) 

12. Roof Features (East Elevation) 

13. Grand Stairway - Room 102 (Head-on Interior 
Elevation) ........ 

14. Grand Stairway - Room 102 (Side Elevation) . 

15. Grand Stairway Landing within Turret - Room 209 

16. Unenclosed Stairway to Third Floor 

17. Interior Elevation - Room 304 .... 

18. Interior Elevation - Room 306 .... 

19. Interior Elevation - Room 210 .... 

20. Interior Elevation - Room 002 Hot Water Tank. 

21. Interior Elevation - Room 002 Coal-fired Furnaces 

22. Interior Elevation - Room 004 Electrical Distribution 

23. Interior Elevation - Room 104 .... 

24. East Elevation (Photograph taken 1974) . 

25. North Elevation (Photograph taken 1974) 

26. South Elevation of Main and "L" Wing (Photograph taken 
1974) 



31 
31 
32 
32 
33 
33 
34 
34 

35 
35 
36 
36 

37 
37 
38 
38 
39 
39 
40 
40 
41 
41 
42 
43 
43 

44 



VI 



ADMINISTRATIVE DATA 



This section is comprised of data supplied by the park staff of Delaware 
Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania. Vital data that 
specifically identifies the structure and its historical significance is listed 
below. 



VITAL STRUCTURE DATA 



Title: 

Number: 

Location: 



Treatment Period: 
Order of Significance: 



Marie Zimmermann House 

LCS Number 209-C 

Tract 11504 of f U . S. Route 209, Delaware 

Township, Pike County, Pennsylvania (within 

the Zimmermann Farm Complex) 

1912 

Class I 



PROPOSED SCOPE OF WORK ON STRUCTURE 

The structure would be adaptively used both as a visitor contact station 
and as a living quarters for 4 to 12 seasonal employees (summer use only) 
and would require total exterior restoration and interior adaptive use. 
This work would entail the following specific tasks: 1. provide for 
general "clean up;" 2. provide utilities (water, electricity, and sewage 
disposal); 3. repair exterior components to keep out elements and carry 
away rainwater; 4. repair interior main stair balustrade; 5. rehabilitate 
kitchen and bath areas; 6. provide fire/intrusion alarm systems; 7. 
address, if possible, what impact there might be on repaired finishes that 
are not within environmentally controlled spaces. Phasing will be 
dependent upon total project cost. 



PROVISION FOR OPERATING STRUCTURE 

Because the structure is situated centrally on the Pennsylvania side of 
the recreation area, it will serve as seasonal quarters for rangers and 



1 



interpretive staff working in the Dingman's Ferry subdistrict. Use will 
occur between May 1 and September 1. It is the current policy of this 
recreation area to integrate historic structures into the park operation. 
The location of this structure is excellent because of the accessibility to 
other areas of the park including New Jersey, via the Dingman's Bridge. 

Continued limited use as a residence would have no impact on the historic 
fabric of the structure. However, proposed use of the Zimmermann house 
as a quarters for seasonal personnel and as a visitor contact station could 
require some interior structural modifications to accommodate additional 
loading. Depending on life safety code requirements, there could be 
visual impact on the exterior appearance of the house. Such impacts 
would be reversible and thereby retain those qualities for which the 
house was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. 



COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT EXECUTED OR PROPOSED FOR OPERATING 
STRUCTURE 

There will be no cooperative agreements made with any of the 
surrounding municipalities or townships for fire, security, or safety 
services. 



ANNOTATION OF ALL RELATED DOCUMENTS 

Associated documents bear upon the structure's management uses, 

furnishing requirements, and interpretive needs and should therefore be 

integrated into the total assessment of this historic structure. They are 
as follows: 



Classified Structure Field Inventory Report 

General Management Plan 

National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form 



ARCHITECTURAL DATA 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



Preface 



The contents of this report were extracted from a scarce and fragmented 
source of information. What sources were available and subsequently 
used were very general in nature and provide only a vague and rather 
incomplete view of the Zimmermann complex. It is quite possible that with 
the allocation of further in-depth research time additional information 
could be obtained to document a more precise historical account of the 
complex's evolution. 



Acknowledgements 

It is only appropriate at this time to convey my appreciation to those 
individuals who were instrumental in the preparation of this document. 
These include the park superintendent and his staff with an extended 
acknowledgement given to George Lucko and his immediate subordinates. 
Also a special thanks goes to Tom Solon, who as an architect detailed to 
the park, has exemplified unequaled professionalism in the areas of 
consultation, data gathering, and a general willingness to cooperate to 
insure that this product is of the highest quality. Those DSC 
professionals who assisted me with the investigative work should be 
acknowledged for their much-needed contribution and overall intent on 
excellence. This report could not have been completed without the 
efforts of these individuals. 



HISTORY INTRODUCTION 

A stately fieldstone farmhouse and its accompanying ancillary structures 
are situated atop a secondary bench above the river bottom and below the 



dominant bluffs that rise beyond and form a three-sided geological 
enclosure. This 1255.80-acre land tract is located 4.8 miles 

south-southwest of Milford, Pennsylvania, in Zone 10 at East grid 
5-11-870 by North grid 45-66-510. The main house sits some 100 yards 
above and west of U.S. Route 209 with its longitudinal axis oriented in 
general reference terms north to south. The remaining complex, 
consisting of two large abuting barns (one frame, the other stone 
masonry construction), a small frame house, and other associated 
outbuildings, is clustered approximately one-half mile northwest of the 
main house. 

The Zimmermann acreages evolved through a purchase arrangement with 
Daneal Ennis Van Etten . This late 1870s land acquisition was without any 
major structural element for approximately 30 plus years. At the close of 
this extended period of non-development, a permanent residence was 
designed and erected. 

The main house, built in 1912, along with several ancillary structures 
which were less prominently located, comprise the formal landscaped area 
of the site. These ancillary structures in the immediate vicinity of the 
house were added during subsequent years to complete a fully functional 
summer habitat for the Zimmermann family. 

The entire Zimmermann complex exemplifies to a great degree the late 
arrival of outside wealth to the Upper Delaware River Valley. The 
building complex and associated land served only as a vacation estate and 
never was, nor was it intended to be, tied directly to the local 
agricultural economy. Its purpose that of a vacation retreat prefaced the 
advent of blossoming tourist industry which still thrives throughout the 
Upper Delaware Valley and adjacent Poconos. 

The farm complex continued to function as a seasonal retreat up until 
approximately 1967 when the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers acquired the 
property and subsequently designated it Tract 11504. From 1967 through 
1975 the complex was only seasonally attended and the buildings fell into 
a mild state of disrepair. In 1975, the National Park Service obtained full 



rights to the property and only recently began the task of resurrecting 
what was once one of the more impressive summer retreats overlooking a 
meandering Delaware River. 



PHYSICAL HISTORY 

Exterior Appearance, ca. 1912 

The main house's original configuration was a simple rectangular plan with 
the longer axis extending north to south. Exterior overall dimensions 
were approximatly 54' 7" north to south by 33' 4" east to west. Above a 
relatively level grade extended a 2-1/2-story multi-shaded random-range, 
quarry-faced ashlar limestone masonry first story with a slate 
shingle-cladded second story topped by a Vermont slated gambrel style 
Dutch roof with a bell-case eave (see Illustration 3). At either gambrel 
end stood a stone chimney capped by an iron plate flue shield and 
screen. For clarification, the main building portion and the "L" wing will 
be described as separate entities. 



Main Portion 

At the main portion first floor level four symmetrically positioned and 
equally sized windows were interrupted by a single door opening 
occurring at about midway of the east elevation (see Illustration 1). The 
west elevation is a reflected image of the east at its southern extension 
with the remaining wall broken by the "L" projection. Within both 
gambrel end walls are two sets of French doors flanking either side of the 
chimney stacks. 

The second floor spaces projected out beyond the secondary plane of the 
gambrel roof in the form of nearly a full width shed dormer. These 
projecting second level facades were symmetrically interrupted by a series 
of six paired, single hung sash windows. The gambrel end walls 
contained two single hung windows installed on either side of the centered 



chimney stack. Above this second level on either side of the half-story 
were three symmetrically spaced eyebrow windows peeking out along the 
break line of the upper and lower gambrel roof planes (see Illustration 
1). Situated within either gambrel end wall were two quarter-circle 
casement windows in mirrored configuration on either side of the centered 
chimney stack. 



"L" Wing Portion 

This 1-1/2-story 30'0" by 21'6" projection retains the symmetry of the 
main portion, however it carries with it a unique difference. That being 
the building shell sits upon a previously existing rubble masonry 
foundation; therefore, its transverse and longitudinal dimensions were 
limited by the length and breadth of the existing foundation walls. Other 
than introducing new masonry infill material used to level the wall along 
the plate bearing lines and the breaching of the east wall to access the 
new basement, no modification was made of the existing wall parameters. 
An adjoining masonry footing radiating between the existing and new 
foundation walls was added to accommodate the erection of one of the 
house's more prominent features. This feature, situated at the inside 90 
degree juncture of the wing and the main house, is a 15'0" diameter 2-1/2 
story tapered stone turret (see Illustration 6). Within the turret are two 
window openings at the second floor, one at the first and third floors and 
a single door opening leading out to a radial patio nestled within the "L" 
at the first floor level. Both roofs of the two intersecting building 
components are clad with slate shingles. The entire north elevation 
extends some 63' 4" from east to west. Positioned within the north facade 
of the "L" at the first floor level were three window openings and two 
door openings. One of the two door openings led out from the first floor 
level with the more westerly door leading to a covered stairway that 
served as an outside egress from the basement level (see Illustration 8). 
Continuing with the "L" wing portion of the north elevation, the second 
floor level facade (similar to the dormer-like projections on the main 
house) were broken with equally spaced and variably sized single hung 
windows. The south elevation of the "L" carried with it an identical 



dormer-like second floor projection but displayed only two single hung 
window openings and a single vertically oriented fixed multi-light 
opening. 

A specific and distinguishable architectural style is not apparent when 
viewing this structure. Certain elements are characteristic of Richardson 
Romanesque style, although the general ambience reflects a strong Dutch 
Colonial Revival influence. However, the structure presents to the 
viewer a harmonious smattering of architectural elements blended to result 
in an eclectic building style all of its own. Or as a local historical 
architect once commented, "it has many oddly conflicting lines and planes, 
and while being vaguely suggestive of a translation into masonry of the 
shingle style of the 1880s, and reminiscent of the French Provincial style, 
it fails to achieve a true architectural integrity. Despite this fault, the 
house has many attractive features." 

For a graphic representation of this narrative, see existing condition 
illustrations. 



Proposed Uses 

Before discussing the proposed uses of this structure it should be noted 
that the 1978 draft revision of the general management plan proposes to 
use this structure as an archeological field museum. As it is now 
proposed, the main house itself would be modified to shelter a nonspecific 
number of seasonal rangers and to function as an interim visitor center 
station. Both uses of this building would allow it to remain esentially in 
its present plan with very little modification to its exterior facade. 
Proposed occupancy may dictate a secondary direct fire egress for both 
the second and third floors which would adversely affect the exterior 
appearance. 



1. John B. Dodd, "Classified Structure Field Inventory Report," National 
Park Service, April 1976. 



Another facet to be considered is the provision for a adjacent parking 
area to the main house that would incorporate enough spaces to 
accommodate visitation and occupant parking needs. It would be best to 
locate the new parking area to the west and south of the main house to 
avoid intrusion upon the historic scene. This would be south of the 
south access road just inside the entry gate. In this location, screened 
from the immediate house's visual premises, it would be necessary to link 
the house and the parking area with a hard-surfaced walkway that would 
be installed at grade and pitched to drain properly. All other vehicular 
access roads would retain their present appearance with only minor 
maintenance performed when deemed necessary. The two historic 
entrance roads that run from the rear of the main house to the entrance 
gates would be restricted to park vehicular accessibility only. 

The intrusion of exterior ramping may be necessary to meet current ANSI 
and Federal Register requirements for handicapped accessibility. To 
facilitate its probable use as both a visitor contact station and staff 
domicile, it would be necessary to supplement the single first floor 
bathroom with a new handicapped-accessible bathroom. This would 
require modification of the first floor plan with the transformation of the 
existing pantry into a bathroom. 

More detail on these impacts can be found in the "Specific Code Analysis 
and Compliance" section. 



SPECIFIC PROBLEM ANALYSIS 

Main Roof 

Existing Conditions . In general the slate shingles and copper flashing 
are in good condition. However, specific areas referred to below require 
immediate attention to preclude further water damage. Replacement of 
shingles and substrate materials such as roofing felts and flashing, may 
be required where the eyebrow roof curvatures feather into the ridge cap 
(see Illustration 12). There are also isolated areas where individual or 



small groups of shingles need replacement. All vent pipes and chimney 
penetrations appear to be adequately flashed. Missing from the roof's 
drainage components are gutters, downspouts, and splashblocks (see 
Illustration 10). The main and "L's" bell-cast eaves will be addressed as 
a separate entity in this section. 

Recommended Treatment . Patch those areas that require replacement 
shingles with new, matching existing in terms of length, width, 
thickness, color, texture, and exposure to the weather. Where individual 
units are replaced, insert new and properly sized copper flashing pieces. 
Replace rotted sheathing with treated material of the same thickness and 
approximate size. New copper downspouts and gutters with fascia board 
mounted combination hangers need to be installed in their historic 
positions. New splashblocks could be added to improve drainage. 



L" and Turret Roof 



Existing Condition . The roofs of the "L" and turret are in generally 
good condition. However, there is one area that deserves prime 
consideration - where the south gable roof abuts the northern half of the 
turret. Here it will be necessary to remove all existing flashing, 
damaged shingles, and deteriorated underlayment including the sheathing 
adjacent to the collecting valley. This high-volume water discharge valley 
is created by the intersection of the turret's curved masonry wall and the 
multi-planed adjoining roof surfaces covered with 4' wide lapped layers of 
roll roofing material. These built-up roof surfaces form a quasi-cricket 
area and evidence would indicate this area has previously experienced 
some water penetration problems. These penetration problems could 
encompass as much as 80 sq . ft. of the roof area. Structural conditions 
beneath this cricketed area are unknown. 

As previously stated the remaining surface area of the "L's" roof is in 
good condition with the exception of an occasional broken slate or two at 
the ridge line or along the drip edge of the eaves. Also missing are 
gutters, hangers, and downspouts. 



Recommended Treatment . Patch those areas that require replacement 
shingles with new matching existing in terms of length, width, thickness, 
color, texture, and exposure to the weather. Where individual units are 
replaced, insert new and properly sized copper flashing pieces. Replace 
rotted sheathing with treated material of the same thickness and 
approximate size. Extensive investigation is needed in the roof area 
north of and along the turret stack to determine the extent of new 
cladding materials needed to preclude further water penetration problems. 
From observation and sparse probing of the existing sheathing, it has 
been assumed that the major framing members such as the rafters and 
bearing plates have not rotted or suffered biological attack to the degree 
that total replacement is considered. As a substitute for piecemeal 
replacement, epoxy consolidation could be implemented as a viable 
alternative provided structural bearing loads could be met. Consolidation 
would apply to only those framing members in compression and exclude 
those in tension. 

New copper downspouts and gutters with fascia board mounted 
combination hangers need to be installed in their historic positions. New 
splashblocks could be added to improve drainage. 



East Eave of Main Roof 

Existing Conditions . A noticeable deflection along the eave line is 
occurring directly over the east main entry way (see Illustration 9). 
This extends approximately 8' 0" either way from a projected centerline 
bisecting the main door. The eave is formed by outriggers, pocketed 
into the exterior stone masonry wall and cantilevered 4' 3" from the wall. 
The outriggers serve as framing members for the soffit boards. Rafters 
frame into the ends of the outriggers to form the roof of the eave (see 
Illustration 10). The cause of this eave's middle section to deflect Is not 
thoroughly known, however, possible explanations for this isolated 
displacement include: 1. rotting of the pocketed ends of the 6' 0" long 
outriggers due to residual moisture within the masonry wall; 2. crushing 
of the bottom wood fibers of the outriggers which bear on the masonry 



10 



wall; 3. settlement of the flat stone arch that spans the main entryway; 
4. improper connections at the wall, at the rafter/outrigger connection, 
and/or at the toenailed connection of the stub rafter and the second story 
wall's sheathing. All of the above factors may contribute to the eave's 
deflection. 

Recommended Treatment . The basic course of action would entail 
removing structurally unstable material, instituting comprehensive design 
analysis for subsequent corrective action, and replacing "in kind" while 
incorporating necessary modifications to ensure the building's structural 
integrity. Until a final determination as to the cause and effect can be 
made, specific recommendations will be deferred until immediately prior to 
the design development phase. Structural assessments will also be 
deferred; however, when completed, they will be added to this report as 
Appendix D. 



Bell-cast Eaves 

Existing Condition . Because of the graduated slope of these graceful yet 
functional eaves, material deterioration is more prevalent due to its 
inherent reduced watershed capability. Water seepage and migration also 
affect the eave soffit boards, fascia boards, and molded trim pieces (see 
Illustration 10). Most of the deteriorated areas are confined to both sides 
of the interrupting turret where the curving walls of the turret in 
conjunction with the eave profile serve to entrap and retain precipitation, 
mainly ice and snow (see Illustration 11). 

Recommended Treatment . Treatment would be similar in nature to 
previously addressed general roof repairs. Repairs would include 
replacing missing, crushed, or fractured slate shingles; reflashing with 
copper where eave abuts masonry; replacing carpentry members with new 
and treated components to be painted or stained to match existing. 



11 



ShutterS; Doors, and Windows 

Existing Condition . Covering windows on the first floor are a combination 
of double leaf or single leaf beaded board and batten shutters mounted on 
pintels. A chamfered astragal is applied to one leaf of the double-leafed 
shutters. A decorative crescent moon cutout is positioned on the first 
quarter point down from the top. Each shutter has 2-1/2" plate "L" strap 
hinges attached by four screws at the battens to secure the shutter leaf 
to the two masonry embedded pintels. Previous measures to protect and 
preserve the shutters involved the installation of plywood panels. 

Covering all of the windows on the second floor with the exception of 
windows No. 209, 210, and 211 are wood shutters mounted on pintels. 
Contained within each frame leaf are two wood louvered panels of equal 
size separated by a rail board. Windows No. 209, 210, and 211 were 
protected by shutters constructed to match the second floor shutters with 
one exception: glass infill panels were inserted upper and lower in lieu 
of wood panels to create a glass shutter (see Illustration 25). Although 
some shutters were shielded from the effects of harsh weathering, there 
exist localized areas of deterioration that require minor repair and a few 
isolated areas requiring total replacement. 

Of the eight major outside egress doors, four are french doors with each 
leaf containing twelve fixed lights set apart by molded muntins and 
secured to the jamb by three hinges per leaf. The remaining four doors 
consist of two Dutch wood panel doors that comprise the main entrance 
and turret egress, one paneled outside access basement door, and another 
paneled Dutch door egressing from the kitchen hallway to the outside. 
All the French doors have mirroring wood screen doors mounted 
approximately flush to the interior edge of the jamb. 

The east main entrance Dutch door, although intact, is no longer mounted 
in its opening. Also only pieces of the entryway sidelights and the 
flat-arched fanlight above the door opening remain (see Illustrations 2 
and 24). 



12 



These typical period wood paneled doors appear to be in excellent 
condition. Most of the hardware is still operable with only minor 
adjustments required. 

Most of the windows are in good working order with some in need of 
limited repair. The majority of these windows are wood framed, single 
hung sash, six over six lights. Most of the other windows are wood 
framed casement windows found at the basement level and at the first and 
third floor levels (all, however, are of varying sizes and styles). What 
remains are windows of a modified wood frame single hung sash variety 
that illuminate restricted interior spaces. 

Recommended Treatment . Repair or replace existing fabric by either 
introducing new material (as would be the case in the replacement of 
lights and in the fabrication of new hardware to match existing), or 
consolidate deteriorated portions with epoxy (as is the case of carpentry 
items), or simply replace with new treated millwork profiled to match 
existing. Additional corrective measures would be to scrape, prime, 
paint, and reglaze as required those carpentry items designated for 
restoration. 



Grading at West Elevation of West Wing 

Existing Condition . Drainage in general does not present a major 
problem, however, a localized problem is evident along the west wing's 
west elevation. This problem also extends around and along the west 
wing's south elevation up to a point where the surrounding grade abuts 
the west patio's steps (see Illustration 4). The gradeline abutting these 
two elevations is inclined toward the stone foundation walls, thus creating 
a water retention problem that needs to be solved before damage occurs 
to the west wing's foundation walls and basement areas. 

Recommended Treatment . New grading swales need to be introduced into 
the existing topography to divert surface water away from the west and 
south foundation walls of the west wing. Existing grades would require 



13 



the addition of two linear swales running approximately parallel to each 
other on a north to south axis. One 4"-6" deep swale would extend from 
the northwest corner of the west wing south to a point where the new 
deeper grade point will blend into the natural topography of the site. 
Another would extend from a point adjacent to the intersection of the 
radial patio and the south elevation of the west wing to another point 
south along a line parallel to the west elevation of the main house. The 
swale would be graded to make a gradual transistion into the natural 
topographical drainage patterns. 



INTERIOR FINISHES 

Existing Condition . Floors, ceilings, walls, baseboards, fireplace 

mantles, window and door trim pieces, and the four stairways and their 
components on all floor levels range from generally good to moderately 
bad condition. 

More precisely there is an extensive crazing problem with 90 percent of 
the plastered surfaces. Damage to the typically used 3" wide T & G pine 
floorboards and to those kitchen and bathroom floors with a linoleum 
overlay is apparent. However, these problems are isolated to specific 
areas and can be dealt with on an individual basis. Window and door 
casements are basically intact and could function with only limited 
restoration. 

Recommended Treatment . There are two alternatives for treatment, both 
of which include the full and comprehensive exterior restoration detailed 
in the preceding section. Alternative I would be a full and complete 
interior restoration, and Alternative II would be only a partial interior 
restoration. This can best be shown graphically on a room-to-room basis 
(see Table 7). 

Both alternatives would include the full adaptive restoration of Room 105, 
the first floor kitchen area; and complete adaptive modification of Room 
104, the first floor pantry area. General restoration would apply to the 



14 



grand stairway and its related components (i.e., soffit fascia boards, 
balusters, handrail, newel post and the individual risers, treads and 
kickboard (see Illustrations 13 and 14). 

Supplemental to these items would be the possible installation of a 
complete sprinkler system. Its implementation would be dependent upon 
occupancy needs yet to be determined by the park. Stipulations relating 
to egress requirements are elaborated upon in the Denver Service Center 
Safety Officer's report, Appendix A. 

The chart. Table 1, specifically indicates those areas that could be 
affected by either the full or reduced scope alternative. 



Landscaping 

Existing Condition . The grounds at the Zimmermann house have been 
reasonably well kept with only minor evidence of neglect. The east lawn 
and adjacent open area to the north are basically clear of infringing 
exotics (see Illustration 1). The area to the south, which at one time was 
bisected by an access road leading up from U. S. 209, is presently 
overgrown with weeds, wind-scattered seedlings, and brush stands that 
now outline what originally were fence rows. To the west of the main 
house lies a planted landscape incorporating a formalized setting of trees 
(i.e., entry road colonnades, wind-breaks, shade providers, and natural 
esthetic features), shrubs, miscellaneous flower beds, stone delineated 
paths, and gravelled access roads. Incorporated within this west 
elevation setting are two ancillary structures situated approximately 100' 
from the main house. Around both of these structures are many kinds of 
decorative plantings. Beyond them to the west is the west property line 
formed by the main access road in conjunction with an abrupt rise in 
elevation. Dense foilage is quite prevalent along this west boundary area 
indicating selected trimming was not routinely practiced. 

Recommended Treatment . With few exceptions, existing landscaping 
elements such as the surrounding site flora are in an acceptable state 



15 









TABLE 


1 










INTERIOR REFINISHING 


1 REQUIREMENTS 






Plaster 


Lath 










Room 


Repair 


Repairs 


Repainting 


Floor 




Nos. 


Walls Ceiling 


Walls Ceiling 


Walls 


Ceiling 


Refinishing 


Remarks 


101 






1-2 


1-2 


1-2 




102 


1-2 




1-2 


1-2 


1-2 




103 






1-2 


1-2 


1-2 




104 


1-2 1-2 


1-2 1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


Full 



105 



201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 

210 

211 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 




1-2 




1-2 




1-2 




1-2 




1-2 




1-2 


1-2 


1-2 




1-2 





1-2 



1-2 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1-2 

1 

1 

1-2 

1 



modification 
Lath repair 
remotely 
required 



Floors possibly 
water damaged 
Extensive wall 
water damage 



301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 



1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 


1-2 



1-2 
1-2 
1-2 
1-2 
1-2 
1-2 



Possible lath 
repair 



1 - Alternative I - full adaptive interior restoration 

2 - Alternative II- partial interior restoration 



16 



with only minor clearing and grubbing required. The exception is a need 
to selectively cut and prune several of the major deciduous trees and 
small scrub pines nestled up against the main house. Such action would 
preclude the possibility of any of the larger dead trees or limbs of live 
trees in close proximity from falling and damaging the main house. 
Subsequently, the removal of specific shrub pines which are nearly or 
actually brushing against the house's masonry walls would result in both 
a functional and esthetic benefit. Those having critical potential of 
affecting the house should be cut to prevent both adverse rooting 
pressure and excessive soil moisture retention created by their 
unwarranted presence. Work of this limited nature could be undertaken 
by park maintenance staff. 



Electrical 

Existing Condition . The power source for previous electrical service was 
from an aerial primary line that runs parallel to U.S. 209. A 
pole-mounted transformer located on the east side of the highway was 
connected by an aerial line to another pole situated on the west side. 
This pole fed a drop line to an underground cable leading to the main 
house. This cable runs subgrade to the southwest corner of the 
basement where it enters the main house and connects with a fusebox 
(see Illustration 22). The aerial line has since been removed, and park 
personnel also have indicated that the underground service was not 
working properly at the time it was permanently disconnected. 

The existing branch circuits consist of either old non-metallic sheathed 
cable (Romex) or old armored cable (BX). Internal branch circuits are 
concealed within the framework of the structure except for the entire 
basement and attic areas, and all closet spaces on the second and third 
floors. Most of the insulation on the individual conductors is brittle and 
obviously deteriorated to the degree that it could present a potential fire 
hazard. 



17 



Interior receptacles are recessed into the plaster walls or surface mounted 
to the baseboards. Height of wall mounts varies between 1' 6" and 4' 6" 
off the finished floor surface. There is one 240 volt receptacle to service 
an electric range in Room 105. 

Lighting of the basement, attic, and closet areas is supplied by 
incandescent bulbs fixed to non-symmetrically-spaced porcelain sockets. 
A few of the bathrooms have a more ornate porcelain wall mount with a 
translucent globe (see Illustration 18). In some instances, the luminaires 
have been removed thus leaving the randomly dispersed junction boxes 
with their protruding conductor ends exposed. Exterior lighting is 
accomplished by surface-mounted floodlights attached directly to the eave 
framing on all four sides of the main house. 

Recommended Treatment (Alternative I). As a general recommendation, 
all existing electrical service should be removed and replaced with new. 
Power tie-in would occur at the transformer and be relayed from this 
point by aerial to a new meter and disconnect switch to be installed on 
the existing pole. From here it would run underground to the southwest 
corner of the main house and terminate at the new panel board. All 
existing branch circuits would be removed and replaced with new. These 
new branch circuits should be comprised of insulated conductors run in 
concealed conduits. The exception is within the basement area where new 
conduit would be exposed along the ceiling's framing members or on the 
masonry bearing walls. 

All existing receptacles should be replaced with a new grounding type. 
The modification of the placement of existing receptacles, if so required, 
should meet and conform to the latest National Electrical Code (N.E.C.). 

All existing luminaires would be removed. Those that are determined 
serviceable should be stored for possible future use. Final decisions 
regarding unserviceable luminaries will be made during subsequent design 
phases. However, as a general recommendation, all new luminaries would 
be installed in the bathroom, hallway, and closet spaces. Illumination for 
all other areas would be provided by floor or table lamps plugged into 



switched receptacles. All new lighting should conform to the latest 
N.E.C. regulations. 

The existing floodlights presently mounted directly to the main house for 
exterior illumination should be removed. New exterior illumination to 
provide security for both the main house and proposed new parking area 
should be accomplished by use of high pressure sodium yard lights. 
Their actual placement, should satisfy both efficiency and visual impact 
concerns. The most apparent impact into the historic scene would be the 
illumination itself. How these elements would be introduced into the 
setting would be determined during final design phase. 

Another requirement essential to the health and safety of the future 
occupants would be the installation of a fire detection/alarm system. 
Such a system could consist of either "rate of rise" and/or "ionization" 
type detectors. In conjunction with this would be the installation of an 
alarm actuated telephone dialer system to alert essential park personnel of 
any fire-related emergency. 

Also needed would be the installation of an intrusion detection/alarm 
system. The system could be a conglomerate of different modes composed 
of magnetic contacts attached to all basement and first floor exterior 
windows and doors; infrared pulsed beam detectors located in all interior 
entrance spaces, hallways, and connecting stairways; and an alarm 
actuated telephone dialer component. 

(Alternative II). All of the following would be the same as described for 
Alternative I: power service, branch circuits, receptacles, and interior 
lighting . 

The only difference between these alternates is that the existing exterior 
lighting could be reconditioned to provide adequate illumination around 
the main house. This would require initial removal, repair, and then 
reinstallation of these floodlight fixtures. 



19 



Mechanical 

Existing Condition . The house was originally heated by two hand-fired 
coal gravity hot air furnaces with a duct distribution system to each room 
(see Illustration 21). However, there were no provisions made for an air 
return system. Combustion and make-up ventilation air was obtained from 
an outside source through an underground formed concrete channel or 
plenum. This convection air channel runs from a wood capped exterior 
wall pilaster (containing a pair of fixed flow louvers anchored within the 
hollow masonry abutment and leading to a chamber directly beneath the 
furnaces). Such a configuration would seemingly function well and 
evidently did for many years. 

Deactivation of these units followed the installation of two new oil-fired 
warm air furnaces. Related ductwork was linked to the existing duct 
system with only limited alterations. Both oil furnaces use air directly 
from the basement drawing on what outside air vents naturally through 
the unused open ducts on the two coal-fired furnaces. 

Much of the existing ductwork is of plain steel, encased in corrugated 
asbestos insulation. This ductwork, probably original, is badly 
deteriorated and completely rusted through in places. When the oil 
furnaces were installed, uninsulated galvanized steel connector leads were 
used to tie into the original ducts. These incremental segments remain in 
relatively good condition. 

The domestic hot and cold water is piped through copper tubing with 
soldered fittings or through threaded brass fittings to all plumbing 
fixtures. The 1-1/2" copper tubing water service enters through the west 
basement wall near the northwest corner of the basement. It then flows 
through a feeder line to a branch connector leading directly to a (70 
gallon) capacity electric hot water heater (see Illustration 20). The heater 
appears to be unserviceable due primarily to prolonged disuse. In 
summation, the water supply lines are in excellent condition both inside 
and out and show no signs of leakage. 



20 



Sanitary removal is accomplished through cast iron soil and miscellaneous 
discharge piping. These waste-water drain pipes were assembled with the 
typical use of lead and oakum joints. In contrast to this mode of 
installation, all vent piping is composed of galvanized steel with threaded 
joints. Both types show little evidence of leakage and are presumed to 
be in excellent condition. 

Recommended Treatment . Investigation revealed that most of the existing 
mechanical systems would need moderate to extensive replacement. This 
would include the removal of the two existing oil-fired forced air furnces 
and the two existing coal-fired gravity air flow furnaces. This would be 
followed by the installation of high efficiency furnaces with new insulated 
ductwork connected to existing registers. In conjunction with this, a 
new acceptable return air system ducted to the new furnaces would be 
installed. This would also entail the removal of the remaining exposed 
portions of the existing ductwork including all of the related asbestos 
sheet insulation. The existing ductwork within the wall circuits and in 
the attic spaces could be reused. 

It is imperative that the removal and disposal of the insulation would be 
handled in accordance with OSHA requirements. 

A sample of what appears to be asbestos impregnated duct insulation was 
forwarded to a local laboratory for analysis. For results of the 
identification and content determination tests, refer to Appendix C. 

Plumbing needs would be met with the reuse of the domestic hot and cold 
water piping; however, all water lines should be insulated where exposed 
and directly accessible as would be true throughout the basement. 
Plumbing fixtures within the bathrooms can be reused. The existing 
oil-fired water heater should be removed and replaced with a new electric 
or oil-fired unit. 

The existing overflow drains along with waste and vent piping would be 
replaced. All soil and related piping would be cleaned out with a powered 
rotary cutter followed by a thorough water flushing. All vent piping 



21 



would be inspected and probed to ensure that no obstructions are present 
in the system. 

Further exploration of the site is required to locate the existing well and 
pump, septic tank, and leach field. Upon locating these components, the 
following specific tasks need to be performed: 1. test the well's water 
quality and the pump's capacity; 2. check condition of septic tank and 
associated leach field and assess overall capacity of the system; and 3. 
determine if the well and leach field locations satisfy public health 
standards. 

In accordance with applicable code requirements, remove or abandon the 
existing underground fuel oil storage tank. If fuel oil is to be used with 
the new heating systems, install a new underground fiberglass storage 
tank with new connect piping in a predetermined suitable location. 

Follow-Up Recommendations . Upon the completion of all subsequent 
contract documents relating to this structure, an historic structure 
preservation guide should be developed by qualified professionals in 
conjunction with park staff to ensure that the integrity of this structure 
will be maintained. 



Specific Code Analysis and Compliance 

Because the Zimmermann house is a government-owned and operated 
facility under the care of the National Park Service, code compliance 
requirements must conform to the dictates of the U. S. Federal 
Government requirements and also fall within the constraints of NPS 
Management Policies . These policies stipulate that when undertaking 
preservation-related tasks on historic structures, "every attempt shall be 
made to comply with local building and fire codes, to cooperate with local 
officials and to provide protection from lightning." The above being the 



2. NPS Management Policies, p. V-26. 

22 



general guideline to guarantee compliance, however, the more applicable 

3 
issues would be covered by the Life Safety Code and the Commonwealth 

4 
of Pennsylvania State Building Code. As it pertains to this specific 

structure with its direct involvement with the Denver Service Center, a 

cooperative effort would be initiated involving both the DSC's safety 

officer and the regional safety officer in making final determinations. 

Listed below are two subdivisions that will identify those critical areas 
requiring possible modifications to comply with applicable building codes. 
A few code questions specifically related to adaptive use will be deferred 
until building use is more precisely defined and pending occupancy 
further clarified. 

Main House Egress . If occupancy requirements are relatively high, 
present emergency egress conditions would require modifications at both 
second and third floor levels. This would probably take the form of a 
free-standing exterior platform and stairway fire escape. However, other 
modes of emergency egress could be utilized, provided they meet current 
code requirements and satisfy total occupancy needs. Additional study is 
recommended before an effective yet historically sympathetic determination 
can be made. 



Main House Handicapped Accessibility 

Exterior Egress and General Circulation . The existing grade is 

approximately 12" below the first floor finish floor level along the north, 
west, and south elevations. The only exception is the east elevation 
where the grade is approximately 2' 6" below the first floor level. 



3. Life Safety Code, NFPA, 101, Chapter 5. 

4. State Building Code, The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 



23 



These grade differences would present only a minor egress problem that 
could be easily resolved by limiting primary handicapped accessibility to 
the west first floor turret door. 

The solution would simply be the installation of an unobtrusive 
hard-surfaced ramp with low profile handrails to facilitate the elevation 
transistion requirements along the south elevation of the west wing. The 
mini-ramp would rise some 12" flush to the circular west patio with easy 
and direct access to the first floor interior level through the turret door. 

Floor-to-floor access could be accomplished by the installation of a 
wheelchair lift to what was previously a servants' stairway connecting the 
first and second floor and doing likewise with the single stair access 
between the second and third floors (see Illustration 16). Upon reaching 
these three floors either by lift or ramp the handicapped individual can 
accomplish horizontal circulation without confronting major obstructions in 
terms of floor elevation changes. Passageway widths and door clearances 
should not impede handicapped circulation in the above grade floor levels. 
Basement access from both interior and exterior sources would present 
considerable accessibility and circulation problems. An option to complete 
house accessibility would be to restrict handicapped modifications to the 
first and second floor levels and leave the third floor and basement 
inaccessible. 

Restroom Handicapped Accessibility . There is an essential need for a 
handicapped-accessible unisex restroom on the first floor. Its 
recommended placement, provided a modified access to the basement can 
be accommodated, would be within the existing confines of Room 104, the 
present Pantry Room (see Illustration 23). Design development would be 
based on ANSI or Federal Register standards for accessibility. Two of 
the four remaining restrooms meet minima' accessibility requirements. 
These two restrooms are both located on the second floor. 



24 



GENERAL COMPLIANCE 

The Marie Zimmermann house is a National Register property. It was 
entered on the register November 1, 1979, and is subject to the 
requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and its 
implementing regulations (36 CFR 800). A Memorandum of Agreement was 
worked out on the former draft general management plan under a general 
Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement. Under that PMOA, the 
Zimmermann house was to be utilized as an archeological museum. The 
general management plan is in the process of being rewritten and 
consultations with the State Historic Preservation Officer and the 
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation are being undertaken utilizing 
the 1981 Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement. The new general 
management plan may call for use of the house as seasonal staff quarters 
and a supplemental use as a visitor contact station. 

Certain prescribed procedures to minimize adverse effects on archeological 
resources should be strictly followed prior to and during all phases of 
construction (Executive Order 11593). Prior to construction, a qualified 
professional archeologist will inspect the ground surface of the area for 
the presence of prehistoric and historic cultural remains. Should newly 
discovered or previously unrecorded cultural remains be located, site 
evaluation and additional investigations will be accomplished prior to 
earth-disturbing activities. If subsurface remains appear likely, an 
archeologist will be on hand to monitor land-disturbing actions. 

As it relates to this project, attention should be focused on the 
installation of the underground power source, underground fuel storage 
tank, and the water/sewer systems (includes septic tank and leach field) 
in addition to the swale grading. 

Details on compliance with the National Enviromental Policy Act (42 
U.S.C. 4321 et. seq . ) were contained in the draft environmental 
assessment (approved August 1978) prepared for the draft general 
management plan for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. 



25 



Although the 500-year flood level h3S not been determined along that 
portion of river that passes near the Zimmerman n Complex, it is unlikely 
that it lies within the 500-year flood zone. Substantiated data in the 
form of N.G.V.D. (National Geodetic Vertical Datum) projected river 
levels would support this case. The 500-year flood elevation datum above 
the area in question shows a projected reading of 433.7 AMSL while 
similar datum taken below the area shows a projected reading of 324.1 
AMSL. Data does exist on the 100-year flood zone elevation at a point 
near the Zimmermann house. Because this established elevation (400' 
N.G.V.D.) is far below the house's elevation at the 460' contour, there 
would seem to be a clear indication that the complex grounds are situated 
well above a projected 500-year flood zone. However, since this 
deduction is without factual verification, the below stated provision should 
apply as an interim guideline until a final determination is made. 

In accordance with NPS "Final Guidelines for Floodplain Management and 
Wetlands Protection" (47FR36718), certain restrictions should tentatively 
be placed on the future use of the Marie Zimmermann house. Because the 
house may lie within the 500-year floodplain, no historic objects, 
furnishings, collection, or documents may be kept on site unless their 
presence is necessary to retain the historic integrity of the site. If 
there is no practicable alternative to keeping such material in the 
500-year floodplain, a statement of findings will be prepared and the 
material made either totally safe from flood loss or be under an action 
plan or contract for rapid removal from the critical floodplain within the 
limits of available time for warning and evacuation. 



Energy Concerns 

To address the area of special energy considerations, it is recommended: 
1. to maintain or decrease the outer shell heat loss factors through the 
proper use of insulation at the second floor level; 2. to install efficient 
yet effective interior and exterior lighting fixtures; 3. to utilize when 
possible new building materials with significant "R" factors; and 4. to 
prepare a life cycle cost analysis of available fuels in order to optimize 
energy conservation in the final selection. 



26 



Paint and Mortar Analysis 

Due to the compressed historic structure report time limits, the 
acquisition of paint analysis data and conclusions will be completed during 
the design phase. Quality control to obtain color matches is required. 
Several samples must be taken from each space to preclude variances 
resulting from location, exposure, composition, and types of pigment and 
medium used. 

Paint samples should be matched and coded using the Munsell System of 
Color Notation. 

Mortar samples will be taken and analyzed during the design phase. Each 
sample should be tested to determine color, composition, proportions, and 
aggregate size according to ASTM C-136 and ASTM C-85. 



27 



EXISTING CONDITIONS PHOTOGRAPHS 



29 




Illustration 1 

Main House 

East Elevation 

Landscaping elements 
will remain untouched 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 2 

East Main Entryway 

Interior view of 
entryway. Framing 
to receive new side- 
lights, fanlight, 
and existing Dutch 
door. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 



31 



Illustration 3 

Main House 

Partial South Exterior 
Elevation 

New grading will 
provide proper drain- 
age away from the 
foundation walls. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




\ 



Illustration 4 

Main House 

Partial South "L" 
Exterior Elevation 

Note, H/C access will 
be through the entry 
door in the turret's 
base. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




32 




Illustration 5 

Main House 

West Elevation 

Typically the exterior 
masonry walls are in 
excellent condition as 
seen in this view. 

The "L" wing is in 
the foreground. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 6 

Conical Turret 

West Elevation 

Roof areas abutting 
turret have sustained 
severe water damage 
with the turret's roof 
itself remaining in 
relative good con- 
dition. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 



33 



Illustration 7 

Main House 

North Elevation 

Note, proximity of 
shrubs to exterior 
masonry wall. Some 
of these will be 
recommended for 
removal . 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 8 

Basement Stairway 
with Gabled Canopy 

North Elevation 

West "L's" hallway 
egress can be seen 
beyond. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




34 



._4 




Illustration 9 

East Elevation to 
include Bell-cast 
Eave and Entryway 
Features. 

Deflection evident 
along a portion of 
eave line. Entry 
sidelights and fan- 
light need full 
fabrication and 
reglazing. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 10 

Eave Soffit and 
Fascia 

East Elevation 

Deterioration of soffit 
boards and absence of 
guttering is apparent. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 



35 



Illustration 11 

Bell-cast Eave 

West Elevation 

Evidence of water 
damage at or near 
flashing, drip 
components, and 
missing gutter. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 12 

Roof Features 

East Exterior Elevation 

Water penetration at 
isolated points around 
chimneys and eyebrow 
windows. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




36 




Illustration 13 

Grand Stairway Leading 
up to Second Floor. 

Some of the more 
extensive areas of 
water damage can be 
seen beneath the 
landing soffit and 
the adjacent wall. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 14 

Grand Stairway Leading 
up to Second Floor -- 
Room 102. 

Specific concern is 
the absence of the 
newel post which 
will be reconstructed. 
Missing balustrade 
portion to match 
existing. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 



37 



Illustration 15 

Grand Stairway Landing 
within Turret -- 
Room 209. 

Balusters have been 
vandalized both at 
the stair and guard- 
rail portions. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 16 

Stairs leading up to 
third floor viewed 
from second floor 
landing. It is 
important to note 
that this is an 
unenclosed stairway. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




38 




Illustration 17 

Exposed Plaster Lath 
within Turret -- 
Room 304. 

Water penetration at 
the juncture of inter- 
secting roof planes 
is evident. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 18 

Bathroom 306 -- 
Viewed from Third 
Floor Hallway. 

Probable source of 
water into this space 
is from the skylight. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 



39 



Illustration 19 

Bathroom Room 210 -• 
Viewed from Third 
Floor Hallway. 

Staining and spalling 
of plaster is typical 
of spaces adjacent 
to turret. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 20 

Hotwater Tank -- 
Basement Area -- 
Room 002 

Most utility elements 
are inoperative due 
to extended disuse. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




40 




Illustration 21 

Heating Utilities 
Basement Area -- 
Room 002 

Two (2) coal-fired 
furnaces in foreground 
with oil-fired heating 
unit beyond. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 22 

Electrical Distribution 
Basement Area -- 
Room 004 

Presence of various 
types of conductors 
indicates a nijmber of 
rewirings. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 



41 



Illustration 23 

Main House Pantry -- 
Room 104 

Interior view from 
the south entry. 
Visible to the right 
is the basement access 
door which will be 
walled in while a new 
basement access is 
provided through 
an adjacent room. 
This room is to be 
modified as a 
handicapped bathroom. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




42 




Illustration 24 

Main House 

East Elevation 

This photograph vaguely 
reveals detailing of 
entryway sidelights, 
fanlight, and screen door. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




Illustration 25 

Main House 

North Elevation 

Glass shutters are evident 
at the second floor level 
of the "L" wing. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 



43 



Illustration 26 

Main House 

Both South and West 
Elevations are in View. 

Note the trellises at 
grade adjacent to 
the south facade of 
"L" wing. 

NPS photograph, 
DSC, 1983 




44 



EXISTING CONDITIONS DRAWINGS 



45 



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BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Dodd, John B., "Classified Structure Field Inventory Report/' National 
Park Service, April 1976. 

National Park Service Management Policies, p. v-26. 



61 



APPENDIX A 
DSC SAFETY OFFICER REPORT 



Evaluations were made on the premise that building use would be seasonal 
housing of park staff. The two approaches taken in determining 
occupancy loads are described below: 

I. Occupancy loads exclusive of exiting requirements (floor by floor 
occupant loads, calculated by using gross square footages) are based on 
a minimum of 200 sq . ft. per person. 

First Floor -- 10 persons maximum 
Second Floor -- 10-11 persons maximum 
Third Floor -- 6 persons maximum 
Total Occupancy -- 27 persons maximum 



II. Occupancy loads inclusive of exiting requirements (based on the 
same factors incorporated above) 

First Floor -- 10 persons maximum 
Second Floor -- 4 persons maximum 
Third Floor -- persons 
Total Occupancy -- 14 persons maximum 

As it relates exclusively to the third floor occupancy loads, the code 
seemingly allows limited occupancy with the one existing exit. However, 
when factoring in specific code stipulations, it becomes exceedingly 
difficult to justify limited occupancy without a second exit. The code 
implicitly states that the travel distance to an outside exit is not to 
exceed 100 feet when involving an unenclosed stairway. 

This requirement cannot be legitimately met without altering the existing 
structure in the following manner: (1) the installation of a second 
exterior third floor egrees route; (2) the installation of an enclosed 



62 



interior stairway to ground level; and (3) the installation of a sprinkler 
system throughout the building (not specifically required but strongly 
recommended). 

Means of egress on all floors should comply with NFPA 101, Chapter 5. 



63 



DSC-HPC 
Form 802 



APPENDIX B 
PACKAGE ESTIMATING DETAIL 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



Pog«_Lof__L_ 
(or thit pockogt 



PACKAGE ESTIMATING DETAIL 



RCCION 

MIDATLANTIC 


PARK 

DELAWARE WATER GAP NRA 


PACKAOK NUMBKM 

269 


PACKAOK TITUC 

HISTORIC STRUCTURE REPORT/ZIMl^RMAN HOUSE 



(II marc sp»ce is nvtxiod, use plain paper snd ellsch) 



ITEM 


QUANTITY 


COST 


1. Roof Area Main & "L" ~ ■ ' 


LS 


$ 9,420 


2. 


Window & Doors 


LS 


24,420 


3 


Interior Finishes 


LS 


25,190 


4 


Fire Escape/Free Standing 


LS 


29,420 


5 


Handicapped Access 


LS 


39,420 


6 


Landscape 


LS 


19,420 


7 


Parking Lot/Walkway (Asphalt) 


LS 


26,200 


8 


Mechanical System 


LS 


42,420 


9 


Sprinkler System 


LS 


84,420 


10 


Water/Sewer 


LS 


24,420 


1 1 


Electrical System 


LS 


72,420 


12 


Structural Repair 


LS 


9,420 


Estimate valid thru FY 1984. 




$406,590 


B. Hinson, 3/14/83 






Key: LS = Lump Sum 









SUMMARY or CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATES 


CUASt OP ESTIMATE 

A B C 

1 1 Werkini Hn ?»■•>» •i»^r ( ■|«»"i*»«' 

1 1 Drawinci L£LI pi«,, 1 ir««llltl«» 


FroJ. 




Total» from Above 
B & U R & T 


52 


Museum Exhibits 






xxxxx 


55 


Wayside Exhibits 






xxxxx 


62 


Audio- Visual 






xxxxx 


89 


Ruins Stabilization 






xxxxx 


91 


Construction 




$406,590 




92 


Utility Contracts 






xxxxx 


e»TIMATt« 


APPnoVKO n/^Mfur^ 


(till*) 


(*i0*n) 



POST PROFESSIONAL SERVICES ESTIMATES AND SCHEDULING ON BACK OF FORM 



64 



APPENDIX C 
INSULATION ANALYSIS REPORT 



HAGER LABORATORIES, INCORPORATED 



.\N.\LYTICAL SERVICES FOR INDUSTRY 









REPORT ON SERVICE NUMBER 7221 
December 7, 1982 



To: National Park Service 

Denver, CO 

Analysis: The following sample was submitted for analyses: 

One bulk sample for asbestos identification and content determination. 

Method: ASBESTOS (identification) 

Duplicate portions of each bulk material were immersed in liquid 
media of known index of refraction on a microscope slide and observed 
at 100 power using a McCrone Dispersion Staining Objective with 
polarizing light. Characteristics of the fibers under polarized light 
and under dispersion staining conditions using four media were compared 
to similarly prepared samples of known asbestos type. Estimates of 
asbestos fiber content were made by comparing the quantity of non- 
asbestos material to asbestos fibers. 



Results: 



Sample Number 
Bulk 



Description 

Sample contains 75-9096 chrysotile asbestos, and 
1-10% non-asbestos fibrous material. 



Discussion: Detection limit for bulk samples is less than 1% asbestos fibers. 

Laboratory data are filed and available upon request. 



Submitted by: 



JTS/nl 



-44M*. 



i 



T .^^^>\.^LAAy 



T. bnarr 
Moratory Director 



65 



APPENDIX D 
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS SECTION 



. 9 AUG 1983 



H30 (DSC-T£JE) 



Kentorandua 

To: Superinteadcmt, Delaware Water Gap Natioaal Recreation Ar«« 

Froa: Assistant Manager, Kld-Atlantlc/Korth Atlantic Teaia, Denver 
Service Ceater 

Reference: Delaware Water Gap, Pkg. So. 269, Park. Geocral, Drawlnga and 
Specifications, Rebabllltate Zls^serman House 

Subject: Occupancy Loads for Zix^iensan House 

Enclosed is a statccieat by Denver Service Center Safety Engineer, Kenneth R. 
Rueff covering life safety requireaients for this house. As you recall the 
draft historic structure report outlines two conditions for occupancy, one 
with liaitted occupancy and one with a Eaxinma of 27 persons. The foraer 
causes axlnor ix&pacts on the structure while the latter requires provisions 
for life safety which would cause laajor inpacts* 

Since the park has indicated preference for avoidinj safety provisions which 
cause major impacts, especially at the exterior, we arc deslgn-tng for United 
occupancy. The total allowable occupant load will be 14 persons distributed 
in the folloviog manner: 

First Floor -10 persons (transient use - not doaiciled) 
Second Floor - 4 persons (dotaiciled peraanently) 
Third Floor - persons (unoccupiable) 

Therefore the house can provide living quarters for op to four people. 

In order to increase this vc would have to include features such^as additional 
stairways, enclosures for odLsting stairways and/or fire suppression systems 
as explained in Ken ELueff 's enclosure. It is extreaely difficult to place a 
new stairway in this house which would provide adequate egress froia wore than 
one or two rooms. Ue are, however, providing a design for a residential type 
fire sprixikler systea whith you can add as a bid alternate. If you wish, since 
the potential use of the house in the future is not yet known. 



66 



Ve vanted to let you know of these requlreneats aad their consequenceB to the 
design and building use. We are proceeding in the direction outlined for 
limited occupancy and hop« that you will let ua know irnmediately if you hava 
any probleas vith this course of action. 

/s/ Richsrd P. Vm^cnn 

J^^erald D, Patten 
Enclosure 



1. 



cc: 

Reg. Dir., Kid-Atlantic, w/enc. 

bcc; 

DSC-TOE-Mr. LaFleur, w/enc. 
|j) SC-TNE-PIFS , j wlsnSL. 

TOE: KBennett : dd : 8/8/83 ; 6928 



67 



United States Department of the Interior 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

DENVER SERVICE CENTER 

755 Parfet Street 

P.O. Box 25287 

IN REPLY REFER TO: Denver, Colorado 80225 

S7215 (DSC-S) 

JUL 2 6 1983 

Memorandum 

To: Harold LaFleur, Mid-Atlantic/North Atlantic Team, DSC 

From: Safety Engineer, Denver Service Center 

Reference: Delaware Water Gap, Zimmerman House 

Subject: Life Safety Requirements for Dormitories 

The conversion of the Zimmerman House to an employee dormitory is required 
to meet the National Fire Protection Life Safety Code as set forth by the 
Occupational Safety and Health Standards. The code covers a number of life 
safety requirements and exceptions for dormitories which can be analyzed 
to give various alternatives for a particular building. The requirements 
for some alternatives are as follows: 

I. Unlimited Use as Dormitory (Alternative 1 ) 

A. Calculated occupant load - 1 employee/200 square feet gross 

1. First floor = 10 

2. Second floor = 10 

3. Third floor = 8 

B. Enclose all stairways 

C. Install an exterior or an enclosed interior stairway for second 
and third floors. 

D. Manual alarm or auto smoke detection system 

E. Individual room smoke detection 

F. Interior finish Class C 

G. Room doors solid core with closures 

II. Unlimited Use as Dormitory (Alternative 2 ) 

A. Maximum occupant load - 1 employee/200 square feet 

1. First floor = 10 

2. Second floor = 10 

3. Third floor = 8 

68 



B. Total sprinklered building 

C. Install exterior or interior stairway to second and third floors 

D. Manual alarm or auto smoke detection system 

E. Individual room smoke detection 

F. Interior finish Class C 

C. Room doors solid core with closures 

III. Limited Use as a Dormitory (Alternative 3 ) 

A. Maximum occupant load - 1 employee/200 square feet gross 

1. First floor = 10 employees 

2. Second floor = 4 employees by exception 17-6.22.1 

3. Third floor - employees by allowing exception for second floor, 

B. Smoke barrier second floor stairway 

C. Window escapes 

D. Manual alarm or auto smoke detection 

E. Individual room detection 

F. Interior finish Class C 

G. Room doors solid core with closures 

IV. Other Combinations between Limited and Unlimited 

A. Second floor use (I or II) 

B. Second and third floors use (I or II) 

C. Third floor use (I or II) 

Essentially the two problems with the building are (1) lack of sufficient 
exits and (2) unenclosed stairways. Unless these are corrected, it makes 
little sense to use the building as a limited dormitory (four or less 
employees). Further, to keep it at this limited use administrative control 
is not a satisfactory approach. I strongly recommend the use of a sprinkler 
system to overcome the building deficiencies so that it becomes flexible 
for various future uses. NFPA 13 D (low cost sprinkler system for houses) 



69 



may be desirable for this building, although I would like the- opportunity 
to discuss its limitations with the design team and park before making a 
final decision on its effectiveness. 

I trust this will give you the necessary guidance for your design. 




70 



•it U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1985—576-039/10042 REGION NO 8 



As the nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the 
Interior has basic responsibilities to protect and conserve our land and 
water, energy and minerals, fish and wildlife, parks and recreation 
areas, and to ensure the wise use of all these resources. The 
department also has major responsibility for American Indian reservation 
communities and for people who live in island territories under U.S. 
administration. 

Publication services were provided by the graphics staff of the Denver 
Service Center. NPS D-63